The first pets of novice aquarists most often become viviparous fish, which are attractive not only for their exotic shapes and bright colors, but also for their unpretentiousness to food and undemanding to conditions of detention. However, live bears are also loved by experienced aquarium owners, including for ease of reproduction, as well as for the possibility of breeding a variety of decorative forms of these fish.
What kind of fish are called viviparous
They are called viviparous fish for the fact that they do not spawn, but give birth to live fry. In fact, such a “live birth” is very different from the real live birth. The fact is that the caviar is fertilized inside the body of the female. She does not sweep it up, but calmly carries it in herself before the transformation of embryos into fry, after which it gives birth to live formed fry.
The embryo receives food for its development only from the eggs (eggs), and not from the mother’s body through the placenta, like in real viviparous animals. Therefore, these fish are also called oviviviparous, unlike placental viviparous, which include higher animals.
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There are many species of viviparous fish contained in aquariums, according to the classification of the German aquarist Posekert, there are more than two hundred. Below are descriptions of only some of the most popular ones.
A distinctive feature of the guppy are long veil-like tails and fins in males. But in general, the tail fin in this fish can be very diverse in shape. both round and have swords, just two (top and bottom of the tail) or a disc-shaped single sword.
The size of the guppy is not very large and is 1.5-3 cm in males. Females are much larger and reach a length of 6 cm, but their appearance is not as spectacular. Most of them lack a large tail and the coloring is monotonous, gray, although there are females with elongated fins.
This species is ideal for maintenance at the initial level and feels comfortable even in very small 15-liter aquariums. With a small population of such an aquarium, 5-7 individuals may well do without additional filtration and aeration of water. The aquarium should be protected from direct sunlight, a bowl to change the water and clean the soil.
For fish and plants to feel comfortable, you need additional lighting, they can serve even the simplest desk lamp. As feed suitable dry feed mixtures. Guppies are unpretentious and calmly endure even a week-long hunger strike. When feeding, do not overfeed fish, it can lead to water damage in the aquarium.
Get the offspring of guppies is very simple. They regularly breed even in common aquariums, but here it should be remembered that all viviparous fishes, including guppies, are very bad parents and can easily eat their offspring. Therefore, in order to preserve the fry, pregnant females are either removed from the main group, or in the general aquarium they arrange dense thickets, where the young can shelter from the voracious parents.
This aquarium fish belongs to the family of the Petsilievy detachment of the kartozuboobrazny and, like the guppy, is one of the most common aquarium favorites. In nature, this species can be found in the waters of Central America.
The swordsman’s native color is slightly reddish or greenish with a black horizontal stripe in the center of the body. The tail is equipped with a xiphoid process from below, which is why this fish got its name.
In aquariums, thanks to breeders, you can find a more spectacular color. from radically black to lemon. The most popular color of the fish is the red body and black tail with a xiphoid pointed bottom.
An unusual feature of this type is that the swordtail is able to change its gender. This metamorphosis occurs if the aquarium is overcrowded with females. Breeding the Sword is not difficult, even for inexperienced aquarists.
The Sword-bearer is a viviparous fish, which is capable of reproduction in about a year. The female lays about fifty fry at a time. "Pregnancy" lasts 40 days.
Before the very birth, the female’s abdomen becomes square. During this period, it is advisable to plant it in a spawning aquarium, since the fry can be eaten by both parents and other fish. After birth, the female should be transplanted from fry.
Feeding fry does not cause difficulties, since they are born quite large. They are fed with artemia, nematodes, and even finely cut pipe-maker or well-ground dry food. Sometimes boiled egg yolk is introduced into the diet of fry.
Adult individuals of swordtails are completely unpretentious to food. They eat any kind of live food. a pipe worker, a cortex, a cyclops, a daphnia. Dry mixes, as well as canned frozen food are also well perceived by this fish.
The Swordsman calmly endures long hunger strikes, up to a two-week absence of external feeding. If there are live plants in the aquarium, and this is desirable for the maintenance and breeding of these fish, then the swordtail may well hold out on a vegetable diet for quite a long time. If the aquarium is densely populated, regular water changes are desirable, about 30% per week, as well as constant aeration.
Molliesia belongs to the family of the Petsiliyevs and the genus of the Petsyliy, however, aquarists usually do not mix them with other patzilia, which will be described in more detail below. Most often mollies are called fish with a deep black color, which is more correctly called Black Molly. This form is also distinguished by a beautiful lyre-like tail.
In nature, this species is common in Central and South America. On the Yucatan Peninsula, there is a sailing species, and in the vast spaces from Texas to Colombia you can meet low-melter mollies.
The natural color of this species can be from yellow-gray to spotty. Initially, in the XIX century, when this fish was brought to Europe, the spotted form of this fish was popular, the black color of the mollies now dominates. The maximum length of the fish is 6 cm in males and 8 cm in females.
The content of mollies is not as simple as guppies or swordsmen. For this fish the aquarium should be quite spacious, preferably from 60 liters. Requires artificial bright lights. Desirable filtering and aeration of water. Replacing water once a week is also a necessary procedure.
In the diet of this fish should be present both live and vegetable feed. As a vegetable component of the diet, you can use ordinary lettuce or cabbage leaves, previously scalded with boiling water. Mollies is a long-lived fish and, under the right living conditions, can live in an aquarium for up to 8 years.
The ability to reproduce occurs in males after 8-12 months, and in females about six months. The pregnancy of the female lasts from 60 to 70 days. The adult large female is capable of producing up to 240 fry. For beautiful young with long fins, young individuals are kept at temperatures lowered to 20 degrees.
A pregnant female should preferably be deposited in a spawning tank with a capacity of 40 liters, which is recommended to be pre-densely planted with plants. The recommended temperature for successful spawning is 25 ° C. Feed the fry followed by Cyclops, Artemia or other "live dust".
Putsiliya. this unpretentious fish, popular along with guppies and swordtails among novice aquarists. Different types of platies form the genus Pecilia, which is a member of the family of Cartozuboobrazny.
In nature, these fish are found, as well as many viviparous aquarium species, in North and Central America, up to Guatemala, from which they were introduced at the beginning of the last century.
The natural color of the placia is significantly different from the color of their aquarium counterparts. it is yellowish with brown spots before the tail fin. However, as a result of active breeding, this fish has acquired a wide variety of colors and shades, which speaks of the patsilias as an excellent breeding species.
Among the aquarists are known ten basic options for coloring of placiums. The size of a mature individual reaches 5 centimeters. The fish has a short body and often elongated, sail-like fins.
Keep this live beetle is easy. A pair of petillas will take root freely in a five-liter tank. For a flock of 5-6 fish, an aquarium of 50 liters is enough to make them feel most comfortable there. The temperature of the water should be maintained in the range of 22 ° C to 25 ° C.
Feeding the platies will not cause much trouble to an aquarist, even a beginner, as this species is omnivorous. Any dry, live or vegetable food is suitable for this fish. It is best to feed the pigeon with a pipe worker or bloodworm.
Percyls, like all viviparous, reproduce very simply. If the fish is not deposited in the spawn and leave it in the general aquarium, then dense thickets of plants should be organized for the fry so that they can hide there, including from parents. The fry time of the female is 40-50 days. The number of fry that appear in the patsili is up to 80 pieces.
If the pregnant female has settled out of the general aquarium, then immediately after the birth, it should be returned back, having been sown from the young. Artemia, Cyclops, shredded tubers or dry, well-ground food are the starting food for the fry. In addition, at the initial stage of the life of the fry, the partilias can be fed with boiled yolk of the egg.
Ameka is the only species belonging to the genus Ameka. The fish was distributed on the territory of Mexico, where it lived in mountain rivers. But since 1996, this species has been listed as extinct in the wild. Fortunately, in aquariums it can be seen, and often.
The body of Ameca is high, compressed on the sides. Females are larger than males, reach a length of 12 cm. They have a silver color, in addition, the whole body is dotted with black specks. The length of the males does not exceed 8 cm, the scales are mirrored, the caudal fin is edged with a yellow-black stripe. In the morning, on the body of the fish you can observe a pronounced dark stripe stretching along the side, in the daytime this stripe becomes hardly noticeable or disappears altogether.
Ameka is a very active schooling fish. Fights between males for leadership in the pack are common among them, and the fight may be accompanied by injuries and damage to the fins of opponents. The winner of such fights occupies a dominant position in the pack and has a brighter color.
For a flock of a dozen fish enough 60-liter aquarium. It is recommended every week to change 20% of the water in the aquarium. They eat almost any live and dry food, up to the leaves of a dandelion.
Ameks become sexually mature at the age of 5-6 months. Carrying fry lasts about 60 days. It can be born from several individuals to two dozen fry. They are fed small live or dry food. These fish do not eat their own offspring.
It is possible to contain data of live beetles with other species, but approximately equal in size and requiring similar conditions of detention. Too small fish may not be good for amek, and too large ones themselves may cause them trouble.
Are there any features in the care
In general, all live bears are distinguished by unpretentiousness. They feel well in a wide temperature range from 20 ° C to 30 ° C. Not as sensitive to aquarium size and water hardness as other fish. They feed on both live and dry food, multiply quite easily.
In conclusion, it can be noted that viviparous fishes are rightfully very popular with both beginners and advanced amateurs of aquarium fish. Along with their pickiness to habitat conditions, they often have a spectacular exterior and comparative ease of breeding. all this makes them invariably attractive in the eyes of millions of aquarists.