Why Do Goldfish Die In An Aquarium

Why Do Goldfish Die In An Aquarium

"- Hello! I have a problem with goldfish. We lived for three days, then began to hang in the corners of the aquarium, some began to fall on the bottom, and yesterday two died. What is with them?

– And how many fish do you have?

– It was five. Three left.

– What volume of aquarium do you have?

– Aquarium round, 25 liters "

Isn’t it a familiar story? And, alas, such cases are repeated with a frightening frequency. From generation to generation, many people have firmly established an association of goldfish with small vessels, where, in fact, even one fish has nowhere to turn.

An interesting observation: with cichlids, also large fish, such experiments, as a rule, are not carried out. What is so "guilty" goldfish?

Even a cursory reading of information from a variety of existing Internet resources allows us to conclude that at the present time goldfish firmly hold the palm in disease and mortality in amateur aquariums. And, alas, they often get sick and die, not because of their “pain”. on the contrary, just the fish of the genus “crucian” are reasonably considered to be one of the most enduring and persistent. No, the solution to the mystery of numerous deaths and health problems, one might say, lies on the surface. On the surface of the water in which they live.

Let’s try to figure out where a goldfish lives better and why.

This is how a fish should look if it lives comfortably in an aquarium. Photo author

Historically, everyone knows that, all existing goldfish breeds had one common wild ancestor. the Chinese silver carp. Inhabited, of course, in open waters. Well, its "derivatives". various breeds of goldfish. were already kept in closed vessels (vases, vats, etc.), until finally they started to contain in aquariums (that is, strictly speaking, it is possible to call a golden fish aquaria).

What now? The total amount of goldfish sold and bought can be divided into two far from equivalent groups. The first (smaller) group is fish born and grown in aquariums. Those are grown at razvodchik, in small aquarian farms or just at fans. And the second (a hundred times large) group is fish grown for “industrial” purposes. This is a flow intended for bulk sales. Is it possible in such quantities to grow and maintain fish in aquariums? Of course not! Therefore, the natural habitat of such goldfish is the same open water body as for their genetic ancestor. Pond.

What is the conclusion? The conclusion is simple: the aquarium as a habitat for pond goldfish initially does not fit. And in order for it to fit the fish, it must be adapted to this very aquarium life, often for quite a long time. When is adaptation easier? When an aquarist will try to at least to some extent bring the conditions of the fish to the usual for her. There are only two ways here with one mandatory condition. pure water.

The first way is to increase the volume of the aquarium. Naturally, this has certain limits. not every aquarist can afford to keep even a 500-liter aquarium at home, not to mention large volumes.

Then there is a second way. reducing the density of landing fish. This way allows you to achieve a sufficiently comfortable living conditions for goldfish, even in not too large volumes.

It is believed, and it has been experimentally verified that goldfish feel most comfortable in aquariums when there are at least 50 liters of water per adult fish. "Yeah," the novice aquarist says, "then I buy a fifty-liter aquarium, plant one fish there. and I will be happy!" Alas, this is not entirely true. Here one more limitation is used. the size of the fish itself. Suppose there is a standard 50-liter aquarium with dimensions (length, width, height) 50x25x40 cm. And an adult goldfish lives in it, one fine day capable of growing up to 18-20 cm without taking into account the length of the tail fin (and the tail fin can easily twice as long as the body). It turns out that the fish will be very limited in movement, it will even be very difficult for it to turn around in such a volume. Consequently, it will practically not consume calories received from food, and these same calories will accumulate, transforming into body fat. The result. obesity, death as a result of which is not so rare. Therefore, it is recommended that an aquarist who wants to keep goldfish should prepare an aquarium with a volume of at least 80. 100 liters per pair.

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Let’s approach the problem from the other side. Features of the physiology of goldfish suggest their greater voracity. These fish are able to eat everything that they are offered, and manage to stay hungry. Accordingly, fish waste is emitted in the same large quantities. Something needs to recycle these wastes, since their accumulation will inevitably entail a significant increase in the concentration of hazardous nitrogen compounds (ammonia and nitrites), as a result of which fish are likely to die from poisoning. "The water is spoiled". the aquarists of the 50s. 80s would say. And they would be right.

A well-known axiom. the care of a large aquarium is less complicated than a small one. In small aquariums, biological equilibrium is sometimes very unstable, and the slightest interference with it from outside (for example, overfeeding fish or overcrowding) can easily break the idyll. A large aquarium is less dependent on such random events. Due to what? Yes, precisely because the place of residence for beneficial bacteria is much larger there, and they are able to safely deal with such sudden "emissions" of harmful substances. Therefore, as a rule, in a large aquarium, the probability of "pulling" of water is significantly lower.

We should not forget about the role of living plants in the process of maintaining biological balance. The fact is that nitrate, the end product of the nitrogen cycle, is no longer being removed from the water. It has to be artificially removed through regular partial water changes. But there are also plants that use nitrate (as well as other nitrogen compounds) for their growth. Therefore, the "ecological situation" in aquariums with a sufficient number of living plants is much more favorable than when plastic is used to simulate aquatic vegetation.

And, of course, we must not forget about aeration. Sometimes it is enough that aeration, which is done using a filter. And sometimes the additional compressor will not seem superfluous at all. Moreover, one should not forget that goldfish are very supportive of oxygen-rich water.

What else is the effect of conditions of maintenance in general and ecology in an aquarium in particular? It is on this that the health of your pets depends. It should be noted that goldfish grown in ponds are carriers of very many diseases, both parasitic and bacterial. Possessing sufficiently strong immunity, in pond conditions, fish can easily cope with the possible spread of these diseases. But another thing. an aquarium. Volumes are less, stress factors are more, "bad water" is an additional reason As a result, the immune system suffers first, and then, without encountering obstacles, the causative agents of diseases start to act. And the worse the conditions of the fish, the greater the chance for even a small problem to develop into an epidemic with the massive death of fish.

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So, summarizing all the above, we can conclude that the mandatory attributes of the content of goldfish in an aquarium are:

– developed, powerful system of filtration and aeration of water;

– the presence of live plants.

Naturally, there are also nets, a thermometer, a siphon for cleaning the soil. these are mandatory accessories for an aquarist.

And then options are already possible. As in the direction of improvement and deterioration.

Let’s try to make out several options for keeping goldfish in aquariums. from the best to the worst.

1. Best conditions:

– aquarium with a volume of at least 200 liters;

– external canister filter with a capacity of 4-5 volumes of aquarium per hour;

– additional mechanical filtering (prefilter or adding an internal filter);

– additional aeration with a compressor;

– the presence of living plants in sufficient quantities;

– diverse feeding (vegetable, live and dry food) with a mandatory unloading day 1 time per week);

– water changes 1 time per week for 25% of the volume of the aquarium.

Under such conditions it is even possible to increase (without overdoing) the aquarium population. up to a ratio of 30–35 liters of water per adult fish.

Why Do Goldfish Die In An Aquarium

Since goldfish are herbivorous, hard-leaved ones — echinodorus, cryptocoryne, anubiasa, and bolbitis — can be recommended as living plants. Lemna, richchiya, hornikolnik will be good vegetable food.

In such conditions, the fish feel good. Photo author

2. Excellent conditions:

– aquarium with a capacity of 150 liters;

– external canister filter with a capacity of 3-4 volumes of aquarium per hour;

– additional aeration with a compressor;

– the presence of living plants in sufficient quantities;

– diverse feeding (vegetable, live and dry food) with a mandatory unloading day 1 time per week);

– water changes 1 time per week for 25% of the volume of the aquarium.

Under these conditions, problems with the content of fish will not. Population. based on the ratio of 35-40 liters of water per adult fish.

3. Good conditions:

– an aquarium of 120 to 150 liters;

– external canister filter with a capacity of 3-4 volumes of aquarium per hour or an internal multisection filter with the possibility of using special fillers;

– additional aeration with a compressor;

– the presence of living plants in sufficient quantities;

– diverse feeding (vegetable, live and dry food) with a mandatory unloading day 1 time per week);

– water changes 1 time per week for 25. 30% of the volume of the aquarium.

Under such conditions, again, problems with the maintenance of fish should not arise. Population. based on the ratio of 40 liters of water per adult fish.

4. Acceptable conditions:

– an aquarium of 80 to 120 liters;

– an external canister filter with a capacity of 3-4 volumes of aquarium per hour or an internal multisection filter with the possibility of using special fillers or a normal internal filter of the same capacity;

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– additional aeration with a compressor or aeration using an internal filter;

– the presence of living plants in sufficient quantities;

– diverse feeding (vegetable, live and dry food) with a mandatory unloading day 1 time per week);

– water changes 1 time per week for 25. 30% of the volume of the aquarium.

Under these conditions, it is desirable to follow the rate of 50 liters of water per adult fish. Overcrowding, overfeeding and irregular water changes and soil cleaning can already cause problems. In this case, the maintenance of hygiene in the aquarium gradually comes to the fore.

5. Conditions "on the verge of what is permitted":

– fish stock density less than 30 liters per adult fish in aquariums up to 200 liters or less than 25 liters per adult fish in larger aquariums;

– only an internal filter with a sponge in aquariums from 150 liters at the fish landing rates specified in paragraphs 1 and 2;

– lack of live plants;

– irregular or rare water changes;

– systematic overfeeding of fish.

Here, the occurrence of problems both with water and with the health of fish is very likely, and in aquariums less than 150 liters without constant care is almost guaranteed. It is necessary to constantly monitor the parameters of water, avoid overfeeding fish, it is possible to increase water changes up to 2 times a week.

6. Unsatisfactory conditions:

– aquarium volume less than 50 liters;

– poor filtering or no filter;

– more than one fish in the aquarium;

– irregular or rare water changes.

If you keep a goldfish in such conditions, you will need almost daily care for the aquarium, including water changes. Biological equilibrium, if established, will be very vulnerable. The probability of certain problems is almost one hundred percent.

7. Invalid conditions:

– fish stocking density less than 20 liters per adult in aquariums of any size;

– aquarium volume less than 40 liters;

– lack of soil and live plants (with the exception of quarantine aquariums);

– no filtering per se;

– irregular or infrequent water changes or lack of changes per se.

Under such conditions, it is absolutely impossible to keep fish. Even quarantined. Photo author

Such conditions can be called "sprats in the bank", and for small aquariums. "lock-in". In fish "living" in such conditions, there is every chance to get sick and eventually die. And, as the statistics says, this is exactly what happens. At least, in such conditions, their age will not be long. Even in large aquariums, the above fish landing density is critical. Even daily water changes may not help in small amounts.

To conduct such dubious experiments is not recommended.

It should be noted that in quarantine aquariums, especially when it comes to active quarantine, there will never be biofiltration; moreover, neither soil nor plants are needed there. But it is still another matter. The purity of the water in quarantine tanks is maintained by massive daily changes and moderate feeding.

The choice, as they say, is yours! And do not forget that goldfish are considered long-livers of an aquarium, they can live for ten to twelve or even more years in good conditions, so imagine how long the fish is able to please your eye!

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