LAUNCH OF THE AQUARIUM. USEFUL ADVICE BEGINNERS.
The publication is intended to be read by all novice aquarists. Especially those who bought their first aquarium.
And he has no resources to ensure his own life activity without human intervention.
Life support home aquarium should be engaged aquarist.
Heat and filter water, feed the fish, siphon the soil once a week, saturate the water with oxygen, etc. But here’s the trouble! A newbie doesn’t know about that. And usually in a crowd buys aquarium, fish, soil and plants.
It will be good if you do not forget about the filter and heater. In general, this option was initially doomed to failure. But it is not regrettable to realize that this is what happens most often.
Running aquarium This is a long process that requires patience and at least basic theoretical knowledge about launching a new aquarium. According to statistics, in Europe, 2/3 of all novice aquarists abandon their new hobby due to “insurmountable problems” at the initial stage.
Why am I telling all these horrors you ask. And is it really so "insurmountable" all these problems with the launch of a new aquarium? Of course not! It’s just that you need to approach the purchase of an aquarium a little more responsibly and do everything right from the very beginning, observing a certain plan of action, which I will briefly describe now!
To start purchase an aquarium, and with it all the necessary equipment: filter, thermostat, lighting lamps (read on this site in the blogs of people who described the data and parameters of all these devices).
Place the aquarium on a flat, stable surface. If the surface on which the aquarium stands on is uneven, then it may burst as a result of the uneven distribution of water pressure on its walls. Also, put a layer of synthetic, non-rotting and non-wetting material under the aquarium, for example, a 5-10mm thick polystyrene sheet or a special rubber mat for aquariums.
Next, lay the ground (before laying the ground, it will need to be washed several times in clean water until turbidity and sediment have passed), pour water, turn on the heater and set the thermostat to 25 ° C. Later it is necessary to check with a thermometer whether water temperature really corresponds to the one you set. The fact is that even with expensive thermostats, the scale is sometimes not accurate, or even breaks after a short time (everything here (pokormiribok.com) read about it).
A week later turn on the light and plant the plants. The next day, the first inhabitants, such as snails or shrimps, can be launched into the aquarium. Bacteria nitrifying, converting ammonia and nitrites, hazardous substances toxic to the health of hydrobionts, released during their livelihoods, into less harmful nitrates at this stage are still very few.
Generally speaking, the main purpose of running an aquarium is to establish the nitrogen cycle. Those. As mentioned above, the processing of dangerous for fish ammonia and nitrite into nitrates. The first animals and settle in the aquarium in order to accelerate the establishment of the nitrogen cycle and increase the number of bacteria-nitrifying.
Feed the first animal should be once a day. Also, to accelerate the maturation of your home water reservoir with the first inhabitants, you can add special bacterial starters, which already contain cultures of necessary beneficial bacteria, for example, the brand starters “Nitrivek”, “STRESS ZYME”, etc.
And only in two weeks it will be possible to launch the first fish. Be careful! They should not be very much. After all, your new aquarium is still not stable and the number of useful bacteria in it is still very small (i.e., roughly speaking. the fish can get it, and the bacteria cannot cope with their poop and then the aquarium will resemble a single-level bio-toilet). The aquarium as an ecosystem is stabilized after only 2 months.
To begin, settle small fish 3-5 cm in size (adult). And each such fish should have at least 10 liters of water. In the future, when your aquarium “gets stronger” and bio-balance is established in it, the density of fish landing can be increased (within reasonable limits, of course).
Notice how much time you have to hold back your own impatience! From the time of purchase of the aquarium to the time of the settlement of its first fish should take at least three weeks. Aquaria does not tolerate sudden movements and fuss!
In general terms, the process of launching a new aquarium looks like this.
Below I want to give you some more general recommendations and provisions that you will be useful to have in mind during the first time of maintaining the aquarium, until you have gained the experience and necessary information.
1) For a beginner, an aquarium with a volume of 70 to 150 liters will do. Such aquariums are not too small to establish relatively stable bio-balance and not too large to cause any maintenance difficulties and require special additional equipment. In fact, contrary to popular belief, the smaller the aquarium, the more difficult it is to take care of, because in small tanks the bio-balance is very fragile and any thoughtless actions can break it very quickly and lead to the death of fish (for example, a banal overfeeding at the initial stage can increase of ammonia level), therefore at first do not aspire to start the so-called nano-aquariums with the volume of 5-30 liters. Experience and flair is necessary to contain such small containers.
2) The ground should not be very small or very large. Large soil in the form of large pebble stones, which was popular with aquarists of the Soviet era, often turns sour because parts of the food that was not eaten fall under the stones and the fish cannot move them and cannot safely eat this food, and it decays safely, poisoning the water. Very fine soil, such as quartz sand, is also not ideal. It is inconvenient to siphon it, because it is very fine and is sucked into the hose along with the water. Also, due to the high density, it is wont to sour due to the obstructed flow of water through it and, accordingly, poor oxygen exchange. The best option for soil will be fine gravel of a fraction of 5-8 mm or or granite rounded pebbles with a diameter of 5-8 mm. Such a soil provides a good gas exchange, and its total surface area is optimal for settling the necessary microorganisms on it.
3) It is necessary to fill in tap water. Before buying an aquarium, it is advisable to find out at least the pH and hardness of the water (this can be done with the help of special drip tests, which are sold in zoomags) that flows from your tap. Different types of fish require different hydrochemical parameters of water for their normal vital activity. Knowing at least the approximate values of pH and water hardness, you can choose for yourself fish that will be comfortable in your particular water. Before you pour water into the aquarium, you need to defend it for the 2nd day, so that gases, such as chlorine, for example, evaporate from it. Water conditioners are usually not required. Usually, everything is fine without them. Boil water is also not necessary. This is monkey labor.
4) Use fluorescent lamps for backlighting. If you purchase branded aquarium, then ultimately you will not lose. After all, the spectrum in them is chosen in such a way as to cause the maximum intensity of photosynthesis in higher aquarium plants. But if it is not possible to purchase branded lamps, then domestic ones with the LB marking will fit perfectly. Lamps need so much that for every liter of water in the aquarium accounted for up to 1W of lamp power. In principle, this method of approach in the calculation of illumination is not true.
The power and number of lamps is selected based on the geometry of the aquarium, the species diversity of plants and many other factors. But for a beginner, such an approach is simple and straightforward, and will completely satisfy the needs of many types of undemanding plants.
5) First, plant cheap and unpretentious plants. For example, vallisneria and rogolotnik. Immediately land a large number of plants, then not to wage a protracted war with various algae such as black beard. Also, the plants will help your aquarium run faster and establish a nitrogen cycle.
6) I’ll tell you some information about the care of the aquarium, which you need to know at first. Feed the fish need twice a day if they are young and once a day if they are adults. Be careful with feeding. Do not overfeed the fish. Here the principle works. it is better to underfed than to overfeed! In case of overfeeding, not eaten remains of feed will be clogged in the ground and spoil the water. Replace the water with a weekly 1/4 to 1/3 part of the volume of the aquarium. At first, siphon soil is not necessary. In the future, this procedure will need to be carried out about once a month. The quality of the water will need to be checked with the help of special drop tests for ammonia, nitrites, nitrates. Do not turn off the filter at night. It should work constantly. Rinse the filter only if the water flow through it noticeably weakens.
Well, here are all the main points that I wanted to tell you! I wish you success in your new hobby! And good mood to you and your fish! =))