The decisive factor when choosing a fish is the size of the aquarium. In order to bring joy, the fish need comfortable living conditions. They should not be cramped and with it, they should feel safe.
It is necessary to find out what types of fish are available, to prepare a list of those that seem most attractive and which I would like to contain. Some wishes will not match with each other because of the size of the aquarium, the compatibility of the fish with each other and so on, but a rich choice will allow you to make a final satisfactory list of candidates without any problems.
To answer the question, which fish is better to get, you need to determine how much they can accommodate an aquarium. Calculations are usually made based on the requirements for oxygen consumption based on the ratio of the length of the adult fish (without a tail) to the surface area of the aquarium: freshwater fish 2.5 cm in length need 192 cm2 for cold-loving species and 64 cm2 for tropical ones. For sea fish, each individual with a length of 2, 5 cm removes 18 liters of water in the first six months of life and 9 liters for the rest of the time. For some other species, however, the population density depends on which area in the aquarium individual individuals recognize as their own. In this case, the aquarium, whose volume is determined by the formula, will contain a smaller number of fish.
There is a very large variety of species of aquarium fish. One of the important principles on which fish are chosen is their compatibility in an aquarium. Pay attention to the compatibility (or incompatibility) of fish species should be even before they are placed together. The main criterion is the similarity of their habitat. In the general aquarium, you can combine fish that are close in life needs, habitat, temperament and habits. For example, it is necessary to take into account that tsikhlovyh fishes cannot be joined together with charicidal ones, since the former are much more aggressive than the latter. In addition, some cichl dwells not in acidic, but in alkaline environments.
It is unlikely that anyone will decide to launch sea and freshwater fish into one aquarium, but much more often fish from brackish ponds are transplanted into fresh water. Also, many errors occur due to incorrect determination of water hardness and acid-base balance (pH) of various freshwater biotopes. Fish live well in captivity, if they create conditions that are closest to the natural. The water temperature requirements should also be similar. Some species got into aquariums from fast-flowing rivers, others from calm waters, which means they certainly cannot exist under the same conditions. Some fish prefer rocky bottom, others. overgrown aquatic plants or open spaces; others need a bright light, someone needs twilight. All these requirements should be taken into account when a suitable habitat is created for fish in an aquarium.
In order to determine the compatibility of fish, you need to know in advance what depth they usually hold, that is, where their food is most abundant. It is better to combine in the aquarium fish that prefer different layers of water. surface, thickness and near-bottom, in order to make better use of the entire space of the aquarium.
Size and temperament.
The size and temperament of the fish are not less important characteristics. Although not all fish are predators, in nature, usually larger ones eat or injure small fish.
Many species jealously guard their territory in an aquarium, using a certain part of it as a storeroom or nest (fodder and reproductive sites, respectively). Such fish are usually aggressive to the representatives of their own, and often other species. Such fish are best kept in different aquariums to avoid conflicts. The behavior of fish depends on the relative density of the population, the number of plants planted and the age of the fish themselves.
You should also carefully consider the process of feeding fish. One of the problems can arise a varied diet, quantity, as well as the composition of the feed. In addition, a group of large fish can interfere with small fish. For example, larger fish will definitely be the first to grab food and eat most of it. Small fish are often afraid to swim in a prominent place, if the aquarium has large dominant individuals. Sometimes not only the size, but also the natural features of any fish make it aggressive. It is not associated with any particular type.
Also, some fish (especially sea fish) do not tolerate other individuals with a body color similar to their own color.
So all the same, which fish easily coexist with each other and which is better to get a beginner? There is a lot of discussion on this issue. Currently, there are quite a lot of fish that are undemanding to care. And you can choose species with a beautiful color and different size, so that the novice aquarium will look stylish and bright. Particularly widespread opinion that for beginners the best choice is viviparous fish such as mollies, swordtails, guppies, etc. Definitely, it is better for beginners to start such fish that are hardy, easy to care for, active, different in longevity and do not require ideal conditions.
These fishes include the family of haracin, which includes about 150 genera. The most popular among them are the neons (red and blue), which is very simple to maintain, as these fish do not really need to change the water (only once every 2 weeks you need to add fresh water instead of evaporated). For neons, you need to purchase a spacious aquarium, not less than 50 cm long, which is better to provide with a cover, since neons are good jumpers and can easily jump out of the aquarium.
Second place in popularity danios (danio-equipinantusov, danio pink and danio-zebra). bright beautiful fish, leading pack lives. The aquarium for these fish should be long, at least 60 cm, as these fish swim quickly and they need space for this. The optimal water temperature for danios is from 20 to 25 degrees, the water should be replaced regularly. But we must bear in mind that the aquarium should be fairly tightly covered with glass on top. After all, they are different jumping ability. In addition, the habitat for danios should be well lit and spacious enough. Aeration is also necessary, as these fish love transparent, oxygen-rich water.
Also very popular among novice aquarists are small fish of the family. These are peace-loving calm viviparous fishes with various and extremely beautiful coloring. Among them, the most common are guppy: they are omnivorous, unpretentious to the composition of water. However, these fish need to be fed with cautious moderation, so as not to overdo it, and they also need periodic partial water changes.
More than thirty decorative forms in the genus swordsmen. These very beautiful fish are unpretentious and not particularly demanding to the size of the aquarium. In addition, like the guppies, they reproduce quite easily, the only thing worth worrying about is to set off the young immediately after spawning, so that adults do not have time to eat them (petilium fish are viviparous).
Look no less beautiful in an aquarium barbs. These fish are striking in their diversity, their genus includes more than 200 species. this is spotted, and five-lane, and clown, and lateristiga, and Schubert, and African, and scarlet, and black, and futunio. Barbusses are quite peaceful and very active. But at the same time, they are not the best neighbors for fish with thread-like fins (for example, angelfish), since they can pluck fins. The same fate can comprehend and slow fish with veil fins. In the neighbors of the aquarium, they better hooked speckled catfish. Barbusy unpretentious in maintenance and care. Only they should replace the traditional algae floating or artificial.
Very unpretentious are considered different catfish from sub-order catfish. They are cheerful, peace-loving, omnivorous, and above all, excellent "orderlies" of the aquarium, and because of the nature of their breathing, they can even live in the dirtiest water, which justifies its status of "unpretentious". Somik live in the bottom of the aquarium, at the very bottom, so they can interfere with very few people or become serious competitors, say, in food.
Among others, of course goldfish, "Relatives" of crucians, which are very popular in aquarium. It is better to settle these fish in a low spacious aquarium with pebbled soil, planted with aquatic plants, but with a place where you can swim freely. Powerful filters and frequent water changes are also necessary, as these fish muddy it greatly. In addition, you need to be careful not to overfeed them. Painfully they are prone to overeating.
In turn, gourami They can boast that, unlike other aquarium fish, they can absorb not only oxygen dissolved in water, but also oxygen from the air. They are very mobile and very curious, and in relation to other types of inhabitants are quite tolerant.
Also to the unpretentious and very beautiful fish can be attributed and Betta fish. The content of these fish in the aquarium does not require much knowledge in aquarium. This species is not whimsical, but the fish have their own character (that is why they got their name), therefore, they can be kept in the general aquarium only with moving, peace-loving fish. It is advisable that Betta Fish grow with them. Males are much more beautiful and brighter colored than females. You should not keep Betta Fish with sedentary fish and, especially, with veil forms, in particular, with veils, guppy males with which Betta Fish can pluck fins. An aquarium for keeping Betta Fish can be used with a small volume, but when keeping two or more males, it is advisable to use an elongated aquarium.
These are just some of the most common types of aquarium fish that are most unpretentious, affordable, and convenient for beginner aquarists. But you should clearly know that no matter what kind of fish you buy, they must be kept in quarantine for a month before being put into an aquarium or replanting to existing fish. This is necessary in order to prevent diseases that they may bring with them. This event requires a small, so-called quarantine aquarium. It should not be soil. It should be equipped with aeration and a conventional mechanical internal filter. Feed the fish in this period of time should be a little, do not overfeed. With the content in it of newly acquired fish, it is necessary to monitor the manifestation of a particular disease, monitor the behavior, appetite, condition of the fins, scales. You can also add small prophylactic doses of salt, antibiotics, fungicides and other drugs to the water. And after a month, provided that all the fish feel good, active, eat well, they can be cheerful to settle in a common aquarium and enjoy watching their fancy behavior and beauty.