Aquarium fish are popular in the form of pets for a large amount of time.
There are a great many of them in nature. consider the description of the largest representatives.
Large catfish for aquarium
Catfish are the oldest freshwater fish on the planet. Their main difference is the lack of scales, which is replaced by bony plates. These fish lead a twilight lifestyle.
Despite the fact that most species feed on plant foods or invertebrates, there are predators among them. Today, aquariums contain about 800 species of these fish. Consider the description of the most popular species.
Red-tailed Catfish (Phractocephalus hemiliopterus)
Outwardly, this fish looks quite interesting: the body is oblong, the head is large in size and flat. The back is gray, and the belly is white. Large eyes are located on the sides. This fish has 3 mustache pairs.
This is a voracious predator, so it can not be placed in an aquarium with smaller neighbors, as they will become food for him. Ideal neighbors will be large cichlids, other species of catfish and fish that are comparable in size to them.
The inhabitants of the aquarium considered are rather slow and are mostly in the bottom part of it; moreover, the older they become, the less mobile they are.
Based on the fact that they are active in the dark, there must be shelters for them in which they will hide during the day. somas do not like bright light. At the bottom there should be not only coarse gravel, but also sand, as these fish like to dig into it.
The water temperature in the aquarium should be kept in the range of 23–27 ° С. In addition, there must be good water filtration due to the large amount of waste.
Pangasius Siamese, or shark catfish (Pangasius sutchi)
Fish got its name due to the similarity in body shape with a shark. Many compare it with a small killer whale. Her head is flattened with a pair of whiskers, and her eyes are large. Dorsal fin resembles a shark.
The tail is divided into two blades. Anal fin large enough. The color of the body in babies is completely silver, but with age the back darkens. The male body size is smaller than that of the female, moreover, the color is slightly paler. In length, on average, this fish grows to 60 cm.
Shark catfish is a very mobile fish, but it is very shy.
For the full life of one individual, this species requires at least 350 liters of water. Coarse sand is poured at the bottom, as well as driftwood, stones and various aquarium plants. The required water temperature is not less than 25 ° С.
Also need good filtration and aeration. In the diet should be a lot of protein.
Bag-tailed Catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)
These fish live in nature in the south-eastern part of Asia. This family is the only species. The body of the catfish is cylindrical, elongated, painted in black and blue or brown. Sometimes on the back there are longitudinal stripes of golden color.
On the jaws can be seen 4 pairs of dark-colored long whiskers. Males differ from females in a brighter color. A special feature of these fish is atmospheric breathing with the help of air sacs, which are located from the gill cavities and to the tail.
This catfish is a predator. He likes to live by himself, can only get along with neighbors of the same size. Like other soma, it is active at night, hiding at the bottom in stones or snags during the day.
For life, you need a place that holds at least 150 liters of water, because bag-mating catfish grows up to 35 cm. Different shelters and accessories must be present in the tank. For soil suitable pebbles.
Water should be well filtered, its temperature should be above 21 ° C. Som eats live food. It reaches sexual maturity at the age of 2 years.
Brocade Pterygoplicht (Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps)
The most beautiful kind of som. On the body of light color evenly located spots of black or dark brown. The body is elongated, large head. The eyes are small, located above the head.
The dorsal fin resembles a sail. The mouth is large, resembles a sucker. This fish swims badly and makes it reluctant.
Pterigoplicht grows up to 35–45 cm in length: this must be taken into account if it is purchased for the first time. He is quite friendly, but the neighbors must be of the same size if there is enough space in the aquarium, at least 400 liters per individual.
At the bottom should be snags, mucus, which is located on them, is the main source of food for these catfish. Water temperature should be within 23–30 ° С.
Brocade catfish. twilight fish, it is better to feed her shortly before turning off the light. They mostly eat vegetable food, but it should be varied.
Other large aquarium fish
In addition to catfish, there is still a sufficient number of different large fish. Speech about the most popular representatives will go on.
Arovana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum)
It is popular in the East. Despite the fact that in the natural environment the fish grows in length more than 1 meter, in aquariums its size is smaller. During the voyage, its movements resemble a snake. The female grows larger than the male.
Caviar are incubated in the mouth, and the male does this for 1.5 months. After this time, he releases fry, which at this time grow already up to 8 cm. Due to the aggression of these fish, they must be kept separately or in companies with larger species.
There should be a minimum amount of jewelry in the aquarium to make it easier for people to swim. These fish are predators and feed on fish, lizards, shrimps and large insects.
Water should be slightly acidic, its recommended temperature is more than 25 ° С. The tank should have a tight-fitting lid with good filtration.
Mastazembelus red-striped (Mastacembelus erythrotaenia)
Homeland is Thailand and Malaysia. Outwardly, this fish resembles an eel. Her body is elongated and covered with small scales. On the back are sharp thorns. On the head below is a proboscis with nostrils, which is used to search for food.
Unlike other fish, the mastabembelus has no pelvic fins. The color of their body is dark brown with long strips of bright color, as well as red spots. Females are slightly paler than males. In length, the fish grows up to 50 cm.
Mastazembelus is nocturnal. They show aggressiveness to representatives of their own species.
For the full life of one individual need an aquarium with a volume of more than 300 liters. At the bottom there should be a sandy soil with a layer of 5 cm, as well as shelters of inverted ceramic pots, fragments of rocks and thickets of hard-leaved plants.
The temperature should be up to 28 ° C. Filtration is needed powerful, besides, these fish love the flow. In the form of food mastazembelus can give any live food. Fish reach sexual maturity at the age of 2 years.
Pseudoplatistoma striped (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum)
In nature, these fish live in the rivers of South America, as well as Peru and Venezuela. The main color is gray; thin vertical stripes of dark color are located along the body, which change their orientation closer to the tail, becoming horizontal. There are dark spots on the fins.
The fin on the back is sharp, and on the tail there is a large cut-out. a business card of this species. There is no scale on the fish, therefore, it can get hurt by sharp objects located in the aquarium.
This kind of catfish is predatory. In aquariums, they grow up to 90 cm. Like other members of this species, pseudoplatistomas are active at night. Aggression and rather large sizes make it a rare instance among those chosen by amateur aquarists.
One fish needs at least 500 liters of water. It is recommended to place coarse river sand or fine polished gravel on the bottom. For decoration use flat stones of large size or snags: everything should be well secured.
Water temperature, comfortable for such fish, is 25 ° С. Powerful filtration and aeration should be present in the aquarium. Individuals can only live with fish of the same size.
Freshwater Moray (Gymnothorax tile)
The fish has slightly bulging eyes, as well as a snake-like body. It is important to understand that, despite the name, these individuals need a little salty or sea water: the only way they will feel good and will live an average of 10 years.
Despite their tough look, moray are very shy. Even the usual rearrangement of decorations in an aquarium can cause them stress. As a result, the fish will refuse to feed a few days and behave unnaturally.
To the activity of moray eels did not lead to the fact that it jumps out of the aquarium, you need to take care of durable glass on top. In addition, it is important that at the bottom there were many caves and crevices, crossing between which the moray will be able to hide.
The capacity of an aquarium for one adult should be approximately 120 liters, because in length it can grow up to 60 cm. Since they produce a large amount of waste, it is necessary to provide water with good filtration and regularly replace it.
The diet of the fish described should consist of different sea food. They are fed 2 times a week, the remains are necessarily cleaned. Freshwater moray eels can live in small groups.
Turquoise akara (Andinoacara rivulatus)
Homeland is the north of Peru and the western part of Ecuador, the fish lives near the coast. A distinctive external feature is the occipital hump. Females grow in length slightly less than males. up to 15–20 cm.
The color of the body is turquoise with black specks on each scale, the same pattern continues on the fins. An orange border is present on the dorsal and caudal fins. This type of aquarium fish is picky about food.
The minimum volume of the aquarium per fish should be more than 300 liters. A sandy substrate is poured at the bottom, snags, stones and artificial vegetation are installed: everything must be carefully secured. Fish love subdued lighting.
Water temperature should be above 25 ° С. In addition, you can not do without filtering high power with regular cleaning of the aquarium.
Turquoise akara is very aggressive, attacks all neighbors. For a normal life of different fish, only a very large tank of water is suitable.
Cichlasoma severum, or false discus (Cichlasoma severum)
Cychlasma in nature lives in the northern part of South America. It differs from other fish in a high and at the same time stretched body, which is also compressed on the sides. In length, the fish grows up to 15 cm. The head of its large size with large eyes.
Dorsal fin is long. Body color in greenish-brown tones. On all scales there are bright specks of yellow, pink or red-brown color. The base of the dorsal and anal fins has dark round spots. Sexual difference is the presence of bright spots on the head of males.
Tsikhlazoma peaceful, can show aggression only during spawning and care for offspring. They live in the lower part of the aquarium. One fish needs at least 200 liters of water. Snags, stone structures, caves and stile-leaved plants in pots should be in the order in the required order.
The recommended water temperature is 22–24 ° С. As with other fish, good filtration is needed in an aquarium.
Eat such tsikhlazoma can both live and vegetable food. Sexual maturity reaches the age of 2 years.
Diamond, or Pearl Cichlasoma (Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum)
This cichlasome lives in Central America. The body of the fish is elongated, has flattening on the sides, its back is high. The line of the forehead rises, the eyes are large. Dorsal fin is long. Body color from dark brown to olive. In length grows up to 15 cm.
Despite the fact that the cichlase lives in groups, the males are quite aggressive towards each other, they can get along only with larger representatives of other species. For one fish you need at least 100 liters of water, the temperature of which is 22–26 ° С.
In the aquarium should be different shelters and floating plants, a powerful filter. Water should be replaced in the amount of 30% every week.
The fish feeds on a variety of foods, as well as substitutes. It reaches sexual maturity at 13 months.
Bee Cyclose or Biocelatum (Nandopsis octofasciatum)
One of the most interesting cichlids. Lives in the marshy areas of North and Central America. This fish has an original color: the body is almost black, fully covered with bright turquoise spots.
The dorsal fin is decorated with a red border. The size of an adult individual is 17 cm. The male grows larger than a female.
For a full life cichlase you need at least 150 liters of water. If there is more water, you can also put other residents who must necessarily be moderately aggressive.
There should be shelters of muds and stones in the water, but the swimming space should be left in sufficient quantities. Temperature conditions suitable for individuals are 23–30 ° С. In addition, there must be filtration and aeration.
The diet of tsihlazom is live food, freezing, vegetable mince, shrimp, pellets and flakes. At the same time vegetable feed should prevail.
Astronotus Oscar, or Astronotus ocellus (Astronotus ocellatus)
It is one of the most popular aquarium fish of the Tsikhlov family. The homeland is the tributaries of the Amazon, but today such fish can be found in the natural waters of Australia and the USA.
Astronotus. fish of large size, their body is oval, and the head is large. In the aquarium, they grow to a maximum of 28 cm.
In captivity, these individuals can live up to 15 years with good care. Their color varies from brown to olive-gray, with red-orange spots scattered throughout the body. At the base of the caudal fin there is a large black spot in the yellow border, visually resembling the eye.
For a full life one fish needs at least 100 liters of water. Coarse gravel is recommended as soil. To bring the situation to the natural, you need to install snags and branches. Lighting is best done muffled.
These fishes are thermophilic, comfortable for them temperature range is 23–28 ° С. The filter must be very good, since harmful compounds may accumulate in the water, leading to health problems.
Uaru (Uaru amphiacanthoides)
These fish in the natural environment inhabit the northern part of South America. In captivity they grow to a maximum of 17 cm. The body is egg-shaped, strongly compressed from the sides. The back is dark olive, the side is gray-yellow, and in this part a long dark spot passes through the whole body.
The fins are gray-blue with a green sheen. The eyes are small with orange edging.
For one fish you need at least 80 liters of water. These individuals are quite peaceful and love to live in small groups. They inhabit the bottom of the aquarium and love to eat plants. The temperature of the water required for the maintenance of the varix is at least 26 ° C. Lighting should be diffused.
It is important that there are a lot of scenery and at the same time enough space for free swimming. In the form of food, you can use live and frozen food, give vegetable food as additives. It is necessary to ensure that the fish did not experience hunger.
Botsiya clown (Botia macracanthus)
In its natural environment, combat lives in water bodies with dense vegetation, which are located in Southeast Asia and Indonesia. The body of this fish is elongated, slightly rounded, while with a great color.
The color of the body varies from yellow to orange-red, three strips of black are located across the body. A clown’s bout has large-sized eyes without skin, with sharp spikes under them. There are 4 mustache pairs around the mouth. In length it grows up to 30 cm. It is important that the sex differences in individuals are absent.
Contain these fish in a capacity of 200 liters, the light should be muted. In the aquarium should be scenery in large quantities. Having made the decision to start this fish, it is important to remember that they live only in packs of 5–7 individuals, and die alone. Water temperature should be within 25–29 ° С.
Filtering and aeration are also important for combat. Eat both live and dry food.
Butytikofer tilapia, or zebra tilapia (Tilapia buttikoferi)
Homeland is West Africa. This is a favorite fish aquarists due to the interesting character that is inherent in all members of the genus of tilapias, attractive color and size suitable for aquariums. The body is tall, ovoid. In captivity grows up to 20 cm.
The color is light gray, the fish is covered with dark stripes, which are located transversely. The fins are edged in orange. Males look brighter than females.
For one fish you need at least 100 liters of water. In the tank, where they live tilapia, should be shelter. The required water temperature is at least 20 ° C.
The nature of the individuals in question is peaceful, bursts of aggression are possible only during spawning. As a result, they can be kept in company with other large fish. More than one pair of this species cannot be kept in one place. Zebra tilapias are very voracious, the basis of their diet should be animal feed.
As we can see, in nature there are a lot of beautiful fish that easily adapt to life in aquariums. It is important to know the basic information about them before purchasing, and then your pets will delight you for a long time.