Viviparous fishes have found a wide distribution among beginners and experienced aquarists. Screaming bright coloring, calm behavior and simple care for various representatives of this species made them permanent inhabitants of marine and freshwater aquariums.
Aquarium fish, which do not lay eggs, but give birth to live fry, belong to the order of tooth-like ones, including the families:
- four-eyed fish (has up to four species);
- Hudey (about 16 genera and 35 species);
- and the most common family is petsilievye.
The pezillium family includes about 26 genera and 186 species of viviparous fishes. It is one of the most numerous. Habitat. fresh and brackish water bodies of Central and South America, southern United States. Many species are bred in large quantities in South Asia.
Requirements for aquarium and equipment
This family prefers the pack way of life, which determines the size of the aquarium. Capacity for them should not be too small. The volume of the aquarium should be at the rate of 1.5-5 liters of water per individual, depending on the size of adult fish.
The presence of good lighting will reveal all the color range of the color of fish, and in some places dense vegetation will allow females to rest from the males constantly pursuing them.
Large viviparous individuals need a lot of space to create enough personal space (if there are a large number of males in the aquarium). The dominance of the latter in the pack determines their rivalry.
In their natural environment, viviparous fish live in stagnant or weakly flowing water. Creating a small flow in the aquarium will ensure uniform mixing of water and accelerate the growth of fish. And the presence of good aeration will improve the living conditions of pets in the aquarium.
The temperature of the content for almost all types is in the range from 20 to 29 ° C. Depending on the size of the aquarium, you need to choose the appropriate heater with automatic temperature control.
For proper use of the water filter, it is necessary to select its type in accordance with the volume of the aquarium. The filter should exclude the possibility of sucking the young, which will increase its survival rate.
Content of viviparous fish
In the content of viviparous fish are simple. They have high adaptability to different water bodies and conditions in them. Thus, the petsiliev family transfers successfully:
- a sharp increase or decrease in temperature;
- low oxygen content;
- poor light;
- lack of aeration;
- as well as hard water composition.
To create a comfortable environment this family needs good lighting. Natural or artificial reflected light will emphasize the color of the fish and reveal all their coloristics.
When feeding should take into account that the main part of the diet of viviparous fish should be of plant origin. For the rapid growth of petsilievyh need to use various types of food: live, frozen, dry. You can give additional vegetables, pre-doused them with boiling water (cucumbers, cabbage, etc.). Adult fish is enough to feed once a day, and the young at least 4-5 times.
When settling an aquarium in viviparous, it should be noted that there should be 2-3 females per male. This will avoid confrontation among males in determining the leader.
To ensure the most comfortable conditions for the existence of live beetles, it is necessary to conduct weekly changes. The amount of replacement is up to 30%, depending on the care requirements for each type of fish.
Two male guppies stalking a female.
Viviparous fishes are distinguished by simplicity in breeding and fecundity. Adult females of some species can produce up to 200 fry for one genus. Sex differences are pronounced:
- females are larger than males;
- in males dorsal and caudal fins subtle;
- males are more graceful, slimmer, have a bright and catchy color;
- The main difference between the male and the female is the presence of gonopodium (a transformed anal fin, having the shape of a tube for the passage of seminal fluid during fertilization of the female).
The age of the fish and the conditions of keeping affect the spawn of the female, the duration of its development (from the egg to the fry. from 30 to 50 days) and the one-time number of young animals born. Puberty viviparous fish occurs 3-4 months after birth.
The female has caviar. The male with the help of seminal fluid and gonopia fertilizes her. The female bears a spawn and produces part of the fry, the remaining fertilized calf develops further. Thus, once a fertilized female without the participation of a male can give birth to fry for another six months.
After birth, the fry (size 0.6-1 cm) rise to the surface of the water, fill their swim bladder with air and begin the struggle for survival. They develop quickly and on the second day they eat crushed food (dry, live, frozen).
To increase the survival rate, the fry need thickets of plants. As floating well fit Riccia. During the joint keeping of adults and young animals, it is necessary to ensure sufficient feeding, then the producers will not eat their offspring.