Beginner owners of aquariums often have a lot of questions about fish feed, feeding regularity, is it necessary to give live food to fish or can you limit yourself to dry ones.
How much food to give the fish?
Proper feeding of fish. the most important condition for success in aquarism. Since more often than 1-2 times a day, usually there is no time to feed the fish, the amount of feed that fish eat in 5-10 minutes is the norm.
The uneaten food (especially dry and cooked food) should be immediately removed from the aquarium, otherwise the water will spoil and the fish will die. The reason for this is the avalanche-like development of a huge number of bacteria, for which uneaten food is a good nutrient medium.
The main rule of an aquarist is better to underfeed the fish than to feed them. It is desirable to feed them gradually, but often enough.
Bacteria, in turn, consume a huge amount of oxygen, without which, as we know, most fish die quickly. In addition, these myriad bacteria in the process of life emit toxic substances into the water, in particular ammonia.
How much to feed at the very first time?
It is necessary to give food in small portions as long as the fish do not cease to be interested in them. Remove feed residues. If there are scavengers in the aquarium, the owner decides how much food to leave.
How often to feed the fish?
Large predatory fish are fed less frequently, but in large portions. Fish that eat regularly should be fed in small portions several times a day. The more often you feed the young, the faster it will grow.
Fish that breed seasonally also need more feed during preparation for spawning. But there are cold-loving fish species that do not need feed at all during the cold months, as they are not active at this time.
The mistake of many aquarists is overfeeding fish. Food makes them more active. However, too bloated, as well as sunken, the stomach is a sign of poor health of the fish (with the exception of females with caviar).
What types of feed are used for aquarium fish?
For feeding aquarium fish use dry, live, frozen food and human food.
As an additional feed, use plants that are bred directly in the aquarium, or brought from natural reservoirs.
In addition, dry food, swelling in the stomach, swells. In too voracious fish, it can lead to trouble. In this case, it is very important to choose the right portion of dry food.
STRAW FROM WHEAT;
FLOATING RED GRANULES;
FLAKES FOR PREDATORS;
FLOATING GREEN GRANULES;
FLAKES FOR TROPICAL FISHES;
FEED FOR GOLDEN FISH
Live foods are those that are harvested in natural ecosystems. bodies of water, soil, among terrestrial vegetation. They can be diluted at home in cans, boxes and other containers.
Almost all small organisms swimming or crawling in a pond are of interest to most fish. The most common types of pond feed are daphnia and bloodworms. They are commercially available. Other species of insects have to catch themselves. For example, bosmin, cyclops, mosquito larvae, as well as rowers for larger fish.
You shouldn’t catch predatory insect larvae such as a dragonfly or a large swimming beetle for small fish, which can eat small fish and injure large ones.
Pond feed is very useful in the process of reproduction of fish. In addition, it contains a sufficient amount of coarse components. Many types of pond feed are sold frozen or dried.
In addition to pond insects, as a treat you can offer the fish earthworms, which they love and eat in whole or in part. Woodlice and crickets are only suitable for individuals with large mouths.
Tubules are often carriers of infection, so they should be thoroughly washed before feeding the fish.
Many aquarists are afraid to feed their pets with live food, fearing to carry an infection or parasites. It should be noted that frozen and dried pond feed is quite safe. However, frozen food is quite expensive and contains a lot of water. And the food, dried by cold, the fish do not really like.
Human foods that can be fed to fish include the following foods:
for predatory species: minced meat, beef heart, liver, shrimps, mussels and other clams, boiled chicken, raw and cooked fish, cod caviar;
for herbivorous species: cucumbers, peas, lettuce, spinach, etc.
In addition, fish as an additional feed can be given egg yolk, bread, yeast, dry milk powder, feed, etc.
Do not give the fish too much meat food. Such a diet will lead to indigestion and obesity.
During feeding, it is convenient to observe the fish, determining their state of health.
Is it possible to cook fish food yourself?
In the absence of industrial fodder, they can be replaced with home-made dry and prepared fodder, for example, a mixture of dried plankton, bloodworms, with the addition of herbal ingredients. bread crumbs, oatmeal, etc.
Recently, lovers often use food prepared using edible gelatin. At the same time, oatmeal, flour from dried daphnia, gammarus are brewed in the form of jelly, and also vitamins and medicines are added if necessary.
The use of jelly-like feeds for feeding fish protects the water from immediate contamination by suspended particles. Jelly food stored in the refrigerator for 1-2 weeks.
Before feeding the food is ground to the desired size with a sharp knife or razor blade.
A good fish food can serve as an omelet. For its preparation it is necessary to have milk, eggs and vegetable or butter. The recipe for making an omelet is very simple. Mix 3/4 cup of milk with 1 egg and pour into a pre-heated pan, greased with butter. Fry over low heat until the consistency of an ordinary omelet. The cooled omelet can be given to fish by chopping it to the required size. For feeding the fry it can be passed through a nylon net with a suitable mesh.
Sometimes fish that are not used to scrambled eggs refuse to eat it. To accustom them to such a diet can be added to the milk juice of shrimp, finely grated fish or a little dry food. A pinch of salt or sugar can also have the desired effect.
In the refrigerator on the bottom shelf an omelet can be stored for 1 week. You can put an omelet in the freezer, and then its shelf life will increase to 2-3 months.
Using the previous recipe, you can prepare food for almost all types of fish on the basis of an omelet. For example, for herbivorous catfish, the addition of grated carrots, soy flour or cabbage can be recommended.
At the same time, the carrot is placed on the pan along with the oil, stewed for 5–8 minutes on low heat and only then poured with a mixture of other ingredients.
It should be borne in mind that the omelet spoils the water, and the uneaten particles should be immediately removed from the aquarium.
Ground in flour gammarus or shredded shrimp will improve the color and appearance of fish. For the same purpose, sea buckthorn oil can be added to the omelet at the rate of 1 teaspoon per 1 l of the finished mixture.
There is no doubt that, based on the proposed methods, everyone can make the best food for their pets according to their own recipe.
On the basis of an omelet it is very easy to cook at home, even medical food. In this case, the necessary medicine (for example, metronidazole, furadonin, sulfadimezin, etc.) must be added to the omelet in the form of a powder cooled to room temperature. After mixing well, food can be given to sick fish after 10–15 minutes.
Which is better to use feed. live, frozen or dry! How and where to store them?
The best fodder for fish in terms of meeting their natural needs are small planktonic organisms. daphnids, cyclops, which are easy to catch in summer with a net in any pond or for a long time without drying up puddle. Large fish are fed with a coret or mosquito larvae (bloodworms).
It is best to keep the bloodworm and coret in the home refrigerator on the bottom shelf, that is, at a temperature of about 0 ° C, laid out in a thin layer and wrapped in a slightly damp (but not wet) newspaper. It is very good to freeze the prepared live food in the form of small cubes in the freezer at a temperature of. 18–20 ° C. Thus, the problem of feeding fish in the winter is solved most simply. However, these live frozen feeds have their drawbacks, sometimes serious. Firstly, it is a constant risk of infection, which cannot be destroyed by simple freezing. Secondly, the danger of poisoning fish with fodder caught in heavily polluted water bodies and absorbing some of these contaminations is quite real. Thus, using the feeds mentioned above, it should be borne in mind that feeding safety cannot be guaranteed, especially if you do not have adequate experience.
At the amateur level, the problem of safe and at the same time nutrition of fish is solved with the help of specially designed balanced dry food in the form of flakes, pellets and tablets.
Modern feeds contain a complete set of amino acids, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and microelements necessary for nutrition, taking into account the needs of certain aquatic organisms.
Currently, more than 20 manufacturers from different countries offer their feeds on the market, but reliable information about their qualities and application features can be obtained by referring to specialized literature and professional consultants in local clubs or aquarists.
Does the nutrition of fish change depending on their age?
Products for feeding fish are divided into 3 groups according to age:
food for fry;
food for growing fish;
food for adult fish.
The most difficult to feed the fry that need a live feed.
The most suitable food for them is the ciliate of the shoe. These single-celled can be mined in any standing reservoir. Since the end of spring, the water in such reservoirs becomes turbid, which is caused by numerous microscopic organisms. A large number of ciliates, rotifers and similar organisms are collected around them. They move like dust with a slight wind. Among aquarists, these organisms are called “living dust”. In addition to ciliates, this includes juveniles of branchy and selonog crustaceans.
These microscopic animals can be collected in small-necked water nets. Then they are washed away from the cloth of the net in a specially prepared jar. Having typed a full jar, it is necessary to check whether small crustaceans did not get into it along with the “dust”. They must be removed because they destroy the ciliates, rotifers and their own larvae. The collected small organisms must be placed in a larger vessel in which they will multiply, so that it will be possible to replenish the food supply for the fry.
Feed the fry should not be portions of water with “dust”, but one “dust”, filtered on blotting paper, which is inserted into the funnel. Through this funnel pass 1–2 glasses of water with “dust”. Then the cake with sediment deposited on it is rinsed in the aquarium at the place of accumulation of fry, which immediately pounce on the food offered to them.
If it is not possible to extract "dust", the fry can be fed for some time with yeast or dry egg and milk powder.
To provide the fry with “dust”, two 2-3-liter jars with room-temperature water are sufficient. In order to dilute the infusoria, a bundle of hay or dry salad, as well as banana peels, is placed in a jar, after which chilled boiled water or old water from the aquarium is added.
The vessel with water is placed in a warm place, such as near a radiator. After 1 week the water will become turbid from the multiplied infusoria. In addition to ciliates, rotifers can be bred and efvglen.
Feed for growing fish are small crustaceans. daphnids and cyclops. They can be harvested in overgrown reservoirs with a net or diluted as separate cultures. You can also give them "water dust".
FOR EACH KIND OF FISH NEED SPECIAL FEED
Adult fish are fed by bloodworms. the larvae of some species of mosquitoes. For large fish, it should be given whole, and small fish should be cut into pieces.
The lack of iron in the diet of fish leads to anemia, lordosis, scoliosis, deformities of the skull and convulsions.
Do fish need vitamins and minerals?
Fish daily need for vitamins (per 1 kg of fish weight):
retinol (A). 100 500 and. e.;
thiamine (B1). 0.15 mg;
Riboflavin (B2). 0.11-0.33 mg;
Pantothenic acid (B3). 0.1–1.4 mg;
nicotinamide. 0.55 mg.
Aquarium fish get vitamins and minerals with food. Calcium and phosphorus are absorbed by the skin and gills directly from the water.
It is possible to improve the growth and enhance the immunity of fish by introducing into the feed or water cobalt chloride (0.02-0.09 mg / kg or 12 mg / l), zinc sulfate (0.05-0.5 mg / l). This is especially effective during the development of embryos and larvae. In addition, salts of iron (0.1 mg / l), phosphorus (5 mg / l), red pepper (paprika) (15 mg / g), soybean or legume oil (8 mg / g) and mycelium of the fungus Cartinellus shiitake (8 mg / l) irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp.
Per 100 g of the nutrient mixture for fish usually accounts for 0.5-1.5 mg of vitamins B1, C and K; 1-3 mg of vitamins B2, B6, B9 and E; 5-15 mg of vitamin B3; 80-200 mg of vitamin B4; 4–5 mg of vitamin B5; 30–40 mg of vitamin B8; 0,002 mg of vitamin B12; 0.1–0.2 mg of vitamin N.
In the feed you can add vitamin A (fish oil) in the amount of 2% by weight of fish, 3% hydrolysis yeast, up to 15% of lake sludge (protein-mineral dressing), 5-10% lecithin (sediment) sunflower oil.