What does a fish eat? What does she eat? If fish food is in the water, then why we almost do not see them?
Firstly, because part of their fish is looking at the depth, under a large water column. at the bottom. Secondly, because in the layers of water that are accessible to our vision, there are seemingly transparent, many such beings that the human eye does not distinguish or hardly distinguishes.
What do the fish eat?
According to the nature of nutrition, adult fish are divided into three groups: herbivorous, zoophagous, and predatory.
Herbivorous fish feed on aquatic plants. Animal-eating eaters invertebrates. Predatory feed on fish and other vertebrates. It should be noted that this division is conditional. Peaceful zoophagous fish sometimes feed on young and often their own.
The larvae of some species of fish, depending on the stock of yolk, switch to independent feeding several days after their release from the egg, others. in a few weeks. The food of young fish in the early stages of life are the smallest organisms from microscopic algae and protozoa. Then comes the transition to feeding on larger organisms, mainly plankton: rotifers, crustaceans, and only later does fish differentiate into herbivorous, peaceful, animal-eating and carnivorous. All fish nutritional pattern changes with age.
The ways of feeding fish are different. Some species take food mainly from the surface of the water, most feed in the middle layers, many fish collect food from the bottom or find it by digging in the ground. Many of the fish are predators, with various methods they feed themselves. Depending on the method of feeding, certain species in the process of evolution acquired the shape of the body and the structure of the food organs, which contribute to the extraction and consumption of food. Fish feeding at the surface of the water have an elongated body, a straight line of the back and a mouth up, which gives them the opportunity, maneuvering, to instantly grasp an insect that has sunk into the water. Bottom feeding fish (catfish, etc.), on the contrary, with a straight belly, facilitating movement on the ground, and a mouth turned downwards with a mustache, are sensitive tactile organs for detecting feed. In fish, the diet of which consists mainly of algae (for example, mollies), the lower lip is wide, turned into a lamellar scraper, with which they carefully clean the algal cover from the plants.
The amount of need for food affects the behavior of fish: the intraspecific and interspecific struggle for food is manifested. Under natural conditions, with the diversity of food and its significant dispersion, the frequency of eating in different fish varies. In the same species, the amount of feed consumed varies and depends on the age of the fish, the quality of the feed, the season of the year, the condition of the fish, the concentration of the feeding fish.
In fish, part of the received and digestible food goes to support its vital functions: metabolism, movement, respiration. This feed is called supportive. It is required the more, the more the fish itself. Produce food goes to increase the mass of fish. At an older age, fish will experience a decrease in growth rate and the food it consumes will be used to maintain vital functions, and not to increase its mass.
Conventionally, the food in relation to it fish can be divided into the favorite, replacing and forced. Under favorable conditions, the fish chooses a favorite food, which is the main contents of the intestine. If there is a shortage or absence of favorite food, the fish switches to a substitute food. In the event of a shortage of the latter, she eats forced food.
Most species look for food throughout the daylight, others eat at dusk and at night, predators can hide in shelters for a long time, waiting for the prey, and, having had enough of it, do not resume hunting for many hours or even days. The fish contained in the aquarium, adapt to the feeding regime established by the general rules developed in the process of practical experience. In aquarium practice, the normal mode is considered to be two times feeding adult fish. in the morning and evening. Feed the fish, except for large predatory specimens, only once a day can not. The opinion among some aquarists that it is better to underfed them rather than overfeed to maintain the normal state of the fish is wrong. Fish should get enough quality food on time and be full.
It is impossible to establish any standard feed consumption rates for one fish. The amount of feed consumed by fish depends on many factors. Daily food intake is different in individual species.
The intensity of the nutrition of fish is largely dependent on temperature. Each species feeds most actively in a certain range of temperatures: goldfish at 15–20 ° C, scalarias 22–26 ° C, gourams 24–28 ° C. Above and below a certain temperature, fish generally stop feeding. An increase in temperature accelerates the digestion of food by fish. In this regard, the intensity of food intake in fish at higher temperatures increases.
Some fish stop feeding during the spawning period and during the spawning season itself. Spawning starvation leads to exhaustion, but after spawning a fish begins a period of enhanced nutrition. However, spawning starvation is not characteristic of all fish. Some fish continue to feed throughout the spawning period.
All these features in the behavior of fish and their attitude to food must be taken into account by an aquarist in order to correctly assess the need of fish for the necessary food.
Fish are living organisms, and the need for food in fish of even one species is naturally not the same, not to mention the fact that in aquariums they usually contain fish of different species and ages together. It is believed that if a fish eats food in 10-20 minutes, spreads out and does not express a desire to continue to feed, then we can assume that they are full.
The main types of feed for aquarium fish:
- living and animal origin: “live dust”. freshwater plankton, ciliate-slipper, rotifers, daphnia, cyclops, coretra, bloodworm, devils, mayfly larvae, fruit flies, strawberry, enchitreus, nematodes, grindal, earthworms, meat, eggs;
- dry: daphnia, cyclops, gammarus, bloodworm, tubule;
- frozen: daphnia, cyclops, bloodworm;
- vegetable: semolina, lettuce, nettle, soft aquarium plants; compound feed.
Feeding fish is one of the most important factors when keeping fish in an aquarium. Rational feeding of fish with a variety of high-quality feeds containing substances necessary for the body, preserves their original natural data. exterior, color, resistance to diseases, the ability to produce
The opinion among some aquarists that it is better to underfed them rather than overfeed to maintain the normal state of the fish is wrong. Fish should get enough quality food on time and be full.