Goldfish, which marked the beginning of aquaristics as such, is now, unfortunately, out of fashion. Professionals consider it uninteresting and not worthy of attention, and only a few connoisseurs and experts of this type remain. Therefore, the lot of most cinchons is kindergarten or hospital aquariums with plastic plants or a short life in a beautiful glass given to a person for the holiday, far from fish problems. Let us treat this beauty with the respect and interest that she deserves, and see what is necessary for her for a long and happy life near us.
How demanding are goldfish to conditions?
Opinions on this score are opposite. Some believe that this is a patient, practically unkillable, fish that survives in any conditions, suitable for beginners and people who do not want to invest in the aquarium a lot of effort and money. Others, on the contrary, argue that the content of gold must comply with a number of fairly tough conditions, and they are no doubt right. A goldfish should not be started by someone who is not ready to make efforts for its comfortable existence. And the most important condition for the maintenance of these fish is an aquarium of a sufficiently large volume.
Volume and shape of the aquarium
In Soviet literature of the last century, it is stated in aquaristics that one goldfish should have 1.5-2 dm 3 of water surface, or 7-15 liters of aquarium volume (15 liters per fish is considered to be a small landing density). These data migrated to some modern manuals. However, it should be noted that Soviet books were written about goldfish of domestic breeding, which for many generations lived in aquariums, and as a result of breeding were adapted to such conditions. At the present time, the vast majority of goldfish comes to us from China, Malaysia and Singapore, where they are massively bred in ponds. Accordingly, they are not adapted to life in small volumes of water, and even to a sufficiently spacious aquarium they need to be adapted, and a volume of 15-20 liters means death for them within a few days.
Experts working with goldfish brought from Asia have empirically established:
In large aquariums (200-250 l), with good filtration and aeration, the density of planting can be slightly increased, so that the volume of water is 35-40 liters per individual. And this is the limit!
For any fish, life in a close spherical aquarium without equipment is tantamount to death.
Here, opponents of half-empty aquariums usually object that in zoos, for example, goldfish are very densely packed in aquariums and at the same time they feel great. Yes, indeed, this is the specificity of the exhibition aquariums. However, one should keep in mind that behind the frame there are several powerful filters with which this monster is equipped, the most severe schedule of water changes (up to half the volume daily or twice a day), as well as the regular ichthyopathologist veterinarian for whom there is always work.
Regarding the shape of the aquarium, the classical rectangular or with a slight curvature of the front glass is preferred, the length should be approximately twice the height. In the old Soviet literature it was stated that water should not be poured above the level of 30-35 cm, but as practice shows, this is not critical. Goldfish live well in higher aquariums, if they have the appropriate width and length (tall and narrow aquariums. screens and cylinders. are not suitable for keeping gold).
What types of fish are compatible gold?
The answer to this question is unequivocal. the best option would be a specific aquarium where only goldfish live. Moreover, even short-bodied and long-bodied gold lodging is often not recommended together, but representatives of other species of fish are out of the question. Either the neighbors will harass the scones, damaging their eyes and fins, or the neighbors themselves will be uncomfortable, as the aquarium with goldfish is a very peculiar habitat. In addition, small goldfish can simply swallow.
Water parameters, design and equipment of the aquarium
Goldfish comfortable with the following indicators of water:
- temperature 20-23 °, for short-body forms slightly higher, 24-25 °;
- pH of about 7;
- stiffness not lower than 8 °.
The soil in the aquarium should be chosen so that the fish, digging into it, do not choke. its particles should be without sharp, protruding edges and either larger or much smaller than a fish mouth.
In the aquarium with goldfish must certainly be living plants. Consuming nitrogen, they have a positive effect on the ecological balance, are an additional substrate for bacteria performing biofiltration, and also serve as vitamin supplements for fish.
Lemongrass, Anubias, cryptocoryne, Alterner, Bacopa, sagittaria, Javanese moss get along well with gold. It is recommended to plant the plants in pots so that the digging does not damage their roots. And as a top dressing, specifically give the fish a duckweed, Riccia, wolf, and a hornpole.
Mandatory good round-the-clock aeration. At a minimum, an aerator on the filter should be turned on; it is better to additionally have a compressor. If the aquarium has a high density of living plants, a powerful light and the supply of carbon dioxide is organized (in such conditions the leaves of the plants should be covered with bubbles of oxygen emitted by them), then the aerator is turned on only for the night.
In the design of the aquarium should not use large objects of decor. snags, grottoes, etc. Goldfish do not need shelter, but the fins of the valehvostoy, telescope eyes, growths about them are easy to injure, besides, shelters occupy the space for swimming.
Filtration and water changes
It is generally recognized that goldfish are a large biological load on an aquarium. Simply put, they are dirty, producing a huge amount of waste. Their habit of constantly rummaging in the ground, raising the dregs, also does not add cleanliness to the aquarium. In addition, goldfish excrement has a mucous consistency, and this mucus pollutes the soil and contributes to its rotting. Accordingly, in order to keep the water clean and transparent, a good round-the-clock filtration system is required.
The filter power should be at least 3-4 volumes of the aquarium per hour. The best option would be a canister external filter. If you can not buy it, and the volume of the aquarium does not exceed 100-120 liters, you can get by the internal filter. always with multiple sections and a compartment for ceramic filler.
Porous ceramics is a substrate for bacteria, which process poisonous ammonia released by fish into nitrites and then into much less toxic nitrates. In addition, the substrates for these bacteria, a stable amount of which is vital for the well-being of the aquarium, are soil and aquatic plants, especially small-leaved ones. Therefore, it is desirable to have a lot of plants, and the soil fraction should not be made too large.
In order for the colonies to not collapse when cleaning the aquarium, some rules must be observed: the filter sponges are washed in the aquarium water (the sponges are washed quite often, about once a week), the siphon of the soil is also weekly, done carefully, without mixing it layers, ceramic fillers for biofilters are always partially changed.
Even with high-quality filtration in an aquarium with goldfish, it is necessary to do weekly from a quarter to a third of the volume of the aquarium, and more often if the density of fish landing is violated. The fishes of this species tolerate fresh water well, so there is no need to defend it for more than a day.
Now that we have dealt with the main, most difficult and costly content of goldfish, we can talk about how and what to feed them.
They are usually fed twice a day, giving the amount of food that fish are able to eat within 3-5 minutes. Dry flakes and granules are recommended to alternate with vegetable food. spinach leaves, lettuce, boiled vegetables and cereals, fruits (orange, kiwi). Sometimes you can feed pieces of meat or liver, as well as frozen motils. It is necessary to take into account that the pellets of dry food should be soaked for 20-30 seconds in aquarium water, and thawed frozen food before giving them to fish. Very useful regular feeding live daphnia, which you can grow at home. In addition, as mentioned above, it is always better to have special food plants in an aquarium. Once a week, fasting days are arranged.
Diseases of goldfish are a subject for a separate article, but here we briefly consider only signs that may indicate that the fish are sick or have severe discomfort:
- loss of appetite;
- lowered dorsal fin;
- bulging scales, red or black spots that quickly appear, ulcers, rashes, mucous or cotton-like plaque;
- distended abdomen and bulging eyes stronger than usual;
- unnatural behavior: the fish stays in the corner of the aquarium for a long time, lies at the bottom, rolling over on its side, or swims near the surface, swallowing air from it;
- rolling over while swimming.
It should be noted that with proper maintenance of health problems in goldfish are quite rare. If you initially create good conditions for these animals (a spacious aquarium with live plants and powerful filtration), then care of them will be available to the beginner or even to the child, and for many years they will delight their owner with bright appearance and funny behavior.
What are goldfish, you can learn from the video: