Aquarium Goldfish is an artificially bred freshwater species belonging to the genus of crucians and the class of ray-finned. It has a laterally compressed or short rounded body. All species have pharyngeal teeth, large gill roofs, hard notches forming fins. Scales can be both large and small. it all depends on the species.
Coloring is very different. starting with gold and ending with black with different patches. The only common feature. the shade of the belly is always a little lighter. This is easy to convince by viewing photos of goldfish. The size and shape of the fins also vary greatly. long, short, bifurcated, veil-like, etc. In some species, the eyes are bulging.
The length of the fish does not exceed 16 cm. But in large tanks they can reach 40 cm, not taking into account the tail. The term of life depends on the form. Short, rounded fish live no longer than 15 years, and long and flat. up to 40.
Volume and shape of the aquarium
In Soviet literature of the last century, it is stated in aquaristics that one goldfish should have 1.5-2 dm 3 of water surface, or 7-15 liters of aquarium volume (15 liters per fish is considered to be a small landing density). These data migrated to some modern manuals. However, it should be noted that Soviet books were written about goldfish of domestic breeding, which for many generations lived in aquariums, and as a result of breeding were adapted to such conditions. At the present time, the vast majority of goldfish comes to us from China, Malaysia and Singapore, where they are massively bred in ponds. Accordingly, they are not adapted to life in small volumes of water, and even to a sufficiently spacious aquarium they need to be adapted, and a volume of 15-20 liters means death for them within a few days.
Experts working with goldfish brought from Asia have empirically established:
In large aquariums (200-250 l), with good filtration and aeration, the density of planting can be slightly increased, so that the volume of water is 35-40 liters per individual. And this is the limit!
Here, opponents of half-empty aquariums usually object that in zoos, for example, goldfish are very densely packed in aquariums and at the same time they feel great. Yes, indeed, this is the specificity of the exhibition aquariums. However, one should keep in mind that behind the frame there are several powerful filters with which this monster is equipped, the most severe schedule of water changes (up to half the volume daily or twice a day), as well as the regular ichthyopathologist veterinarian for whom there is always work.
Regarding the shape of the aquarium, the classical rectangular or with a slight curvature of the front glass is preferred, the length should be approximately twice the height. In the old Soviet literature it was stated that water should not be poured above the level of 30-35 cm, but as practice shows, this is not critical. Goldfish live well in higher aquariums, if they have the appropriate width and length (tall and narrow aquariums. screens and cylinders. are not suitable for keeping gold).
The maintenance of goldfish in an aquarium requires the presence of living plants inside the reservoir. Plants must be present to perform a number of functions:
- Nitrogen consumption.
- Substrate for bacteria.
- Vitamin supplement for the inhabitants.
Depending on the conditions in the habitat of goldfish, algae can actively grow. Since pets love to eat plants, it is recommended to make part of the plantings for top dressing, and to plant part of them for decoration of the space and create biological balance. Better fit plants with hard leaves.
Plants should be planted in pots to protect the roots from damage during digging, which the fish love to exercise.
All varieties of goldfish can spawn, but for this they need an aquarium with a capacity of at least 20-30 liters.
The bottom of the aquarium should be covered with sandy soil, in which hard-leaved and small-leaved plants should be planted with a strong root system. The most enduring plants are elodie, nugget, valisneria, sagittaria. One female and two or three males not younger than two years old are usually planted for spawning.
Until this couple of weeks, the fish should be held separately. The temperature in the spawning aquarium should be at the level of 24-26 degrees. In the process of spawning, females scatter eggs from the aquarium, most of which settle on plants. Immediately after spawning, the female and males should be removed from the aquarium.
Goldfish are a very capricious look, and they can only get along with their relatives. However, there are some nuances. As mentioned above, there are many varieties of goldfish, and choosing them for living together is worth the size. Long fish with large tails. the most agile and voracious species.
Small and plump fish with short fins are more passive. Being in the same space, they will offend each other. Someone will become undernourished, someone will damage the scales, fins or tail. Therefore, be sure to choose the fish size. The exception for passive goldfish is catfish. Here they will be welcome neighbors in the aquarium.
Content in an aquarium
The first thing you need to know when acquiring a gold house is that it needs a sufficiently large spacious aquarium. Experienced aquarists believe that for a comfortable dwelling of one individual about 40 liters of water are needed. Here we must also take into account that this fish grows to a rather impressive size.
Therefore, for the maintenance of several fish, you will need an aquarium that is at least 100 liters in size. In large aquariums, moreover, it is easier to maintain the biosphere useful for its inhabitants, it is necessary to change the water less often, and the level of pollution in a large aquarium is much lower, which is important for keeping large aquarium fish.
It is very important to feed the goldfish correctly. There is a special food for this type of aquarium fish. You can vary the diet by adding small pieces of boiled egg to the aquarium, but at the same time make sure that the fish eat everything up.
The main thing in the diet. to comply with the measure and not to overfeed the fish, remembering that the goldfish. glutton. In order to correctly determine the amount of feed, it is necessary to observe for three minutes during feeding how much fish are eaten, and at subsequent feedings give them exactly the same amount.
Filtration and water changes
It is generally recognized that goldfish are a large biological load on an aquarium. Simply put, they are dirty, producing a huge amount of waste. Their habit of constantly rummaging in the ground, raising the dregs, also does not add cleanliness to the aquarium. In addition, goldfish excrement has a mucous consistency, and this mucus pollutes the soil and contributes to its rotting. Accordingly, in order to keep the water clean and transparent, a good round-the-clock filtration system is required.
The filter power should be at least 3-4 volumes of the aquarium per hour. The best option would be a canister external filter. If you can not buy it, and the volume of the aquarium does not exceed 100-120 liters, you can get by the internal filter. always with multiple sections and a compartment for ceramic filler.
Porous ceramics is a substrate for bacteria, which process poisonous ammonia released by fish into nitrites and then into much less toxic nitrates. In addition, the substrates for these bacteria, a stable amount of which is vital for the well-being of the aquarium, are soil and aquatic plants, especially small-leaved ones. Therefore, it is desirable to have a lot of plants, and the soil fraction should not be made too large.
In order for the colonies to not collapse when cleaning the aquarium, some rules must be observed: the filter sponges are washed in the aquarium water (the sponges are washed quite often, about once a week), the siphon of the soil is also weekly, done carefully, without mixing it layers, ceramic fillers for biofilters are always partially changed.
Even with high-quality filtration in an aquarium with goldfish, it is necessary to do weekly from a quarter to a third of the volume of the aquarium, and more often if the density of fish landing is violated. The fishes of this species tolerate fresh water well, so there is no need to defend it for more than a day.
Health of fish All owners of aquariums are very concerned about the disease of goldfish, because such delicate creatures can easily die if you do not take appropriate measures. To understand whether a fish is sick or not, you need to pay attention to its mobility, appetite, brightness of color and shine of scales. The dorsal fin also tells about health problems. if the fish does not hold it vertically, then something is wrong.
A plaque that has appeared on the body or formations that have suddenly arisen are a signal that the matter has already gone far. When these signs appear, you must immediately isolate the sick fish from the rest. Sick fish should be placed in a large aquarium with salt water. the concentration is 20 grams of salt per liter of clean tap water.
Water temperature should not exceed 18 With. Keep the fish in the aquarium for three days, while changing the solution every day. Here is a list of common goldfish diseases: Scale clouding followed by scabies. It is necessary to immediately change all the water; If hyphae appear in the fish. white strings perpendicular to the body, then it has ringworm or simply a fungus. Immediately take action, otherwise the hyphae will sprout inside the body and the fish will fall to the bottom, but it will not float;
Fishpox is called multi-colored tumors (white, pinkish, gray), occupying the skin and fins. Tumors are not a threat, but badly spoil the beauty of the fish and are not treatable; Dropsy with subsequent sepsis is a terrible threat to goldfish. The chance to save the fish is only at the initial stage of the disease, when the patient is “resettled” into running water and bathed in a solution of potassium permanganate every other day for a quarter of an hour;
If you feed the fish with bad food, or feed them for a long time with dried daphnia, bloodworms and gammarus, their stomach will quickly become inflamed; In addition to these diseases of goldfish, there are still many ailments, so it is best to consult a specialist in the issue of disease prevention.
In their natural habitat, the ration of goldfish consists of crustaceans, insects and vegetation. Like most fish, goldfish are omnivorous and they eat without stopping. Overfeeding is dangerous for their health, especially in case of intestinal blockage. The latter is often observed in breeding individuals whose spiral gastrointestinal tract. An abundance of food leads to insatiable feeding, and, accordingly, to environmental pollution by waste and undigested protein. Overfeeding can sometimes be diagnosed on the basis of feces coming out of the fish cloaca. Goldfish-specific diets should include protein-poor foods, where carbohydrate levels are higher than normal foods. Among commercial feeds, there are those that float on the surface of the water and those that settle on the bottom. Enthusiasts can also feed pets peeled peas, scalded green leaves of vegetables and bloodworms. Juveniles feed on Nauplii Artemia.
The behavior of goldfish varies depending on the characteristics of the environment, and in aquarium conditions, on the preferences of the aquarist. Pets have a developed associative memory, and they clearly identify their breadwinner. The owner may notice that the pets react to his approach (swim up to the front glass, move quickly around the aquarium, rise to the surface in anticipation of food), but hide when approaching unauthorized people.