Having an aquarium with beautiful and colorful fish at home is a goal or a dream of many people. Aquarium fish is becoming a new member of the family and needs attention. The knowledge of the correct principles of maintenance and care, will help the beginner to realize the dream, and for many years to enjoy their pets.
How to care for fish in an aquarium
Proper care of fish begins with the selection of the tank. Determine which species will live in an artificial reservoir. The calculation of the volume takes place according to the formula: 1 cm of fish length is 1 l of volume.
When choosing an aquarium, plan where it will be installed, how you will connect the filter, aerator, lighting. There should be an outlet nearby. Do not place in direct sunlight.
The larger the size of an artificial reservoir, the easier and less frequently it will have to be cleaned. In a small or overcrowded tank, you need to change the water frequently and clean the soil. Otherwise, the fish will be poisoned by their waste.
Buy a regular rectangular aquarium. The round shape distorts the image of objects behind the glass and causes stress in the fish.
Plant plants in the pond. Scenery before installation should be carefully cleaned and disinfected.
For more information about the care of the aquarium can be a separate article.
An important point of maintenance is the selection of aquarium fish for living together. They can get along well, and can go to feed each other. Choose neighbors with similar requirements for temperature, water hardness and acidity.
The care requirements of different types of inhabitants are different. The rules in the article are general, applicable to all fish. For specific types, look for more information separately.
Brief instructions for grooming fish in an aquarium include:
- feeding. schedule and quantity of feed so that they do not overeat;
- watch the number of aquarium fish, their behavior;
- check the equipment;
- check the amount of water and temperature;
- change water regularly;
- siphon aquarium soil;
- take care of the plants;
- remove algae;
- clean the decor elements.
Let us briefly review the basic actions for each item from the instructions, so that the beginning aquarist can understand what to look for.
When feeding fish, the main rule is not to overfeed. Otherwise, pets quickly die. For most species, one meal per day is sufficient.
At the beginning of the feeding, accompany the action, for example, by knocking on the glass. Then a conditioned reflex is created. Feed at the same time. Nutrition requires variety and balance.
The main feeds suitable for most aquarium fish are:
- artificial industrial feed;
- live or frozen bloodworm;
- vegetable feed;
- for predators: chopped meat or fish;
- finely chopped squids and shrimps;
- "Live dust" for fry.
Feed alternately alternate. The size of a single portion will be established by sampling. Food should be eaten completely. Feed residues quickly begin to rot and pollute the water. Therefore, remove leftovers after feeding. Fish is useful to starve once every two weeks.
Plants are selected to bring conditions as close as possible to natural ones. The placement of plants in the aquarium should optimally meet the needs of the fish. There are indifferent to them, there are gnawing algae (scalar), who love to hide (fish parrot). Somiki to the leaves attach their larvae.
When inspecting plants, check for leaf damage, how much the bushes have grown. There are types of hygrophilous plants that are regularly thinned and pruned. If the plant has long stems, then timely trimming gives it the shape of a bush.
Even with proper care, algae and bacterial deposits form on the walls of the aquarium or on the decor elements. Delete them. Combine with cleaning the soil.
Use: brushes (preferably with plastic blades, so as not to scratch the glass), magnetic cleaners for glass, funnels for cleaning the soil. Clean the glass, snags and decorations. We disinfect.
Every 14–15 days before the planned replacement of water, sift the soil through a funnel, cleansing feces and other debris.
Check the amount of water in the aquarium weekly to observe evaporation. Check the quality through special tests (for acidity, hardness).
With proper care for fish and an aquarium of 20–25% of water, it is necessary to change every 7 days. Due to the change of water, the nitrate level in the aquarium ecosystem is reduced. For this purpose, it is specifically defended.
You can change the water completely or partially. Weekly replacement is partial. Full replacement is made only in critical cases. When all the fish are sick or severely polluted aquarium. But first you need to defend the water before pouring into the aquarium.
Without the top cover in the aquarium, the water evaporates. If you check the shortage during the test, compensate for the evaporation of water. The liquid to compensate should be the same as in the aquarium. Buy the top cover.
When the aquarium is installed in a sunny place, the walls are closed with curtains. For cooling in hot weather:
- hot water is pumped out from the bottom and gradually pour in cooled water;
- put a package with pieces of ice.
The second method cools the water and keeps the water balance unchanged.
Consider what is set up to care for aquarium fish.
The air vibrator pump enriches water with oxygen. The process is called water aeration. In the event of a malfunction, the fish feel deficient When inspecting pay attention to the sprayer. It accumulates calcium deposits or bacteria. Plaque scrape. If it does not help, change the sprayer.
Check duct hoses. Spoiled change. In the very pumps inside there is a rubber membrane that stretches. Solved by replacing. We clean the aerator air valves once a month, and change them every 6 months.
Purifies water. There are external ones, they are installed in aquariums with a volume of more than 200 liters, and internal ones. for reservoirs less. If the aquarium filter is clogged, the concentration of harmful substances in the water increases. Rinse the filter only in water from the aquarium. Otherwise, the balance of bacteria is disturbed. Do not use industrial detergents, as pets will be poisoned. Clean the sponge from the filter during cleaning, but not to the ideal, so as not to remove the beneficial bacteria. In the fashionable filter pump, change the sponge once a month, if weaker, then every two weeks.
For aquarium use fluorescent lamps or energy-saving, up to 25 watts. With constant use, the aperture ratio decreases. change every 6–8 months.
Thermometer and heater
To measure and maintain temperature in an aquarium.
Diseases and Prevention
Most aquarium fish have strong immunity. The main causes of aquarium fish diseases are:
- deterioration of water quality;
- severe pollution and an increase in the number of pathological bacteria.
If you look at fish, see passive, lying on the bottom, which move strangely, with strange spots or bloom on the body or fins, look for the cause. If necessary, settle separately.
In more detail the most popular diseases are reviewed here.
Compatibility with other fish
When selecting neighbors, consider the compatibility of the fish. They are compatible, partially compatible (goldfish and catfish converge differently) and completely incompatible (predators and peaceful, large and small). There are such compatibility criteria:
Fish pick a similar size with close requirements for temperature, acidity, water hardness, composition and nutritional standards.
In the vicinity of the aquarium fish snails, shrimps, crayfish or aquarium frogs are hooked. Snails crawl along the bottom, decorations and clean the environment from food waste and mucus.
Small fish are compatible with shrimps, for example, guppies, neons. The rest are trying to eat them.
Only small and nimble fish coexist with crayfish that swim away from its claws, for example, guppies. Bright, large species attract cancers, crawling along the bottom too. He hunts them.
Dwarf, artificially bred frogs are also sometimes hooked to the fish. But they have high requirements for acidity, water hardness. A beginner is better not to start them.
Observation and inspection
Daily care for aquarium and fish is reduced to feeding and inspection of fish and equipment. Examine when feeding. all the fish swim up for food.
Check the filter, its performance, water temperature, the presence of algae. Every 7. 14 days, remove garbage from the ground.
The life span of aquarium fish depends on the conditions of care, proper nutrition and species characteristics. They live from 4 to 30 years. The table shows the average duration of popular species:
Large species and spawn live longer viviparous and small fish.
A beginner aquarist should start with a selection of fish that will live in the aquarium. Consider their compatibility.
For beginners it is recommended to start a simple and unpretentious aquarium fish. For example:
When you experience in the care of fish you can add to the collection and more refined and demanding.
Daily inspection, proper feeding, regular water changes, keeping the aquarium clean will provide the fish with suitable and proper care. We wish you success!