Useful tips and tricks for children and schoolchildren who want to have fish at home.
Many species of aquarium fish are able to easily adapt to the conditions of the aquarium content, while not losing the ability to reproduce.
It goes without saying that you will not be able to completely recreate the natural environment in your aquarium, but you still need at least a partial imitation of natural conditions for fish.
Remember that the fish will feel good in a spacious aquarium, so the ratio of length to width should be 10: 1, and for fast-swimming fish. even 15: 1.
Do not populate a large number of fish in one aquarium, as if there is not enough space they will also begin to feel discomfort.
Varieties of aquarium fish
Of the entire huge group of vertebrates, fish are the most numerous in the number of species. By the way, on our planet there are more than 20 thousand species.
This group is larger in number than amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles combined. Aquarium fish are bred for a long time, and are classified according to various characteristics.
Fish are freshwater and saltwater (except for the salty lakes of Utah (USA), the Dead Sea (Israel), the Caspian Sea and the soda lakes of Africa, all the water bodies located on the continents are freshwater).
Absolutely in all fresh water sources there is a small amount of table salt or some other impurities. It is in terms of all reservoirs are divided into fresh and salty. Fishes are primarily divided according to the principle of reproduction:
Also, fish are divided by temperature. In this classification there are also two main types. cold and warm, they are tropical. In addition, there is a biological classification of fish, which you probably taught in school.
Classes of fish are divided into groups, groups. into families, families. into genera, genera. into species. Always the basis of such a classification will be a biological species.
Breeding aquarium fish
All fish, as already noted above, are divided into viviparous and stalking. The latter multiply among plants or stones, hold eggs in the mouth, or lay them in special nests that are made from air bubbles.
In viviparous breeds, the fry are already independent. From the moment of their birth, they can eat food for adult fish, for example, dried daphnia, which, naturally, will have to be ground to the required size.
Fish farming is a very interesting and exciting hobby. It is not as difficult as it might seem at first glance.
By the way, young animals can be bred in the general aquarium. Only in this case you will have to be as attentive as possible, since adult fish are already able to eat their newly born offspring.
Preparation for breeding fish
Females and males begin to prepare for breeding approximately 2-3 weeks before spawning. In some cases they will have to be seated. Sometimes it is completely unnecessary to do this, especially with regard to viviparous fishes. In this case, a very important role will be played by feeding, which must be made as diverse as possible.
Strengthen the diet for 7-10 days before spawning. Fish are given live food, but for some species of aquarium fish, vegetable food plays a very important role.
If there are no differences between the usual and pre-spawning content, then this state of affairs can lead to the fact that the spawning process becomes very slow or becomes significantly more complicated.
If the conditions of the aquarium fish are unsuitable, you risk getting inferior offspring. In some cases, in this situation it is simply impossible to spawn.
As soon as the female begins to prepare for spawning, her abdomen will increase.
When you will prepare fish for breeding, the correct selection of a pair will be a very important point. If your choice is rich enough, for spawning, take young fish that are painted in the most vivid colors.
In some species you may face such difficulty as the aggressiveness of males. This problem is very serious, especially during spawning. It can be solved in the following way: you need to choose the largest female so that its size is larger than that of the male. In no case do not select for spawning old, sick or underdeveloped individuals.
The fact is that they will give offspring, but whether it will be healthy is still a big question.
Sometimes not a couple of fish are planted for spawning, but, for example, one female and two males at once. If you take care of your aquarium fish properly, they can spawn almost year-round.
Creating conditions for breeding aquarium fish
To create the conditions necessary for spawning fish, you will have to pay a lot of attention to the breeding ground itself. Fish of some breeds can breed absolutely in any aquarium. However, it also happens that successful reproduction will be affected both by the total size of the spawning grounds and the water level in it.
After the offspring is received, your main concern will be its preservation. From the above, you can certainly conclude that the offspring should not be kept in too close aquariums. In addition, the breeding ground is not made in new vessels for breeding fish.
The size of the spawning grounds, the level of water in it will directly depend on what breed of fish you currently breed.
Most often they do the following: most of the total volume of the aquarium is planted with plants, and the rest is left free.
Remember that many fish species that spawn in the water column or on its surface absolutely do not need soil. If you have such a case, then plants with small leaves will be most suitable as a soil, for example, Riccia or Cornflower will be suitable.
If spawning of fish occurs in the lower layer of water, put stones on the bottom.
The most important role in the process of spawning is played by water temperature, as well as light level. All the time, make sure that the water temperature in the spawning area was constant, as its sharp drops extremely negatively affect the process of breeding fish.
The light level for each type of fish is yours. For some species, you will have to equip a very bright lighting that will be much stronger than sunlight, others will need moderate brightness.
The situation is similar with water. Some species will require aeration for successful spawning, others will only be able to lay eggs in stagnant water.
Fish to spawn are planted in the evening, as they spawn in the morning. Partners in spawning place at the same time. In order for spawning to be successful, the water in the breeding ground must be soft and fresh. To do this, in the aquarium water will have to fill up. This should be done once a day for 5 or 6 days. Water is added in not very large portions.
❧ In no case do not let the spawning grounds of crustaceans or snails.
How to care for litter
In different types of aquarium fish caviar develops at different times. For some, this period is 20 hours, while for others it is up to 10 days or sometimes even more.
A beginner aquarist may not notice the fry that have just appeared and pour them out when he changes the water in the aquarium. In fish that spawn, fry appear completely helpless. Sometimes the larvae, before hatching from the eggs, attach to the walls of the aquarium or to the plants. During this period of development they should not be fed at all.
After the yolk sac is completely empty and there are no nutrients necessary for the survival of the fry, they begin to swim. As soon as the speed of their swimming increases, you can start feeding.
Lack of food, as well as its excess, can lead to the death of fry. In no case should not miss the moment when the larvae begin to feed on their own, as it will be enough just a few hours to fry die of hunger.
Best of all young fish feed pond dust, which contains a large amount of nutrients. Feeding fry is given often, but in small portions.
To make sure that they really started to eat, you will have to watch them through a magnifying glass. After a few days they stop feeding pond dust, as the fry will already grow significantly. They will need a larger feed.
In the aquarium where the fry will grow, it is necessary to maintain the optimum water temperature. In no case do not let the water become turbid.
In the aquarium where the fry will live, you need to install a compressor and change part of the water daily to keep it clean. Filters begin to use only after some time, when the fry have already grown significantly and can resist the flow of water.
Carefully follow the growth of fry, timely transferring them to a larger feed. Also, you will have to identify those fry that are lagging behind the rest of the fish in their development and growth.
How to feed the fish in the aquarium
When buying, always pay attention to the quality of feed, as live food should be exactly alive, and no more. Fish can be fed and vegetable feed, which are commonly used plants:
They are followed by feed mixtures and dry food by the amount of benefits they bring. Most often, experienced aquarists use live food for their fish:
– bloodworm (mosquito larvae);
– copepods (Cyclops);
– Branch-eared crustaceans (Daphnia);
If you are going to use live food, you should wash it well before putting it into the water. At the same time should be washed with water, the temperature of which should be about the same as in the aquarium.
Industrial feeds are usually sold in the form of granules, flakes, straws or tablets. They include egg yolk, fish liver, cod meat, bloodworm, oatmeal and potato flour, vitamins, all of which are used in various combinations.
Feeding adult fish
Fish should be fed an hour after you turn on the light in the morning, or an hour before you turn it off in the evening.
Some aquarium fish require feeding once a day, others. twice a day, some need food once every few days, and there are also those that will have to be fed once a week. Excess feed is extremely harmful for fish. It is better to give them a little less feed.
Too much food can cause infertility in fish, and also significantly shorten their lives. Excess feed will pollute the water.
If the food has remained, but has not yet managed to sink, proceed as follows: take a piece of paper and put it on the surface of the water, and when it gets wet, take it off.
Fish can be fed and live food, such as bloodworms. He can live in the soil of the aquarium for up to one year. Once a week the fish should have a hungry day.
According to the type of food fish can be divided into: