The most famous way of breeding fish. throwing the game. But some fish breed producing individual fry into the light.
How to breed fish
There are monogamous and polygamous, responsible parents and pets that eat caviar.
Sexual reproduction prevails in aquarium fish. Caviar fertilization methods:
- Interior. Insemination occurs in the body. Characteristic for viviparous.
- Outer. Caviar is fertilized in the pond. Refers to the friars.
Depending on the development of caviar there is a division into three types:
- Viviparous Development and gestation takes place inside the maternal individual. Embryos feed directly from the maternal organism. Breeding is easy due to the large survival of offspring.
- Oviviparous. Fertilized calf is attached to the posterior oviduct. Difference from live birth. the offspring is separated from the metabolism of the mother, food is the contents of the yolk. The mother’s body serves only to protect against external threats.
- Spine-eaters (oviparous). The deposition of eggs in the water.
Parthenogenesis means the development of eggs without fertilization by the male. In the conditions of the aquarium is rare. Individuals of males and females appear from the eggs, which eventually regulates the number ratio of the sexes. This type of breeding is found in carp and commercial fish. Unfertilized eggs neighbor with fertilized. Viable offspring appears rarely. Parthenogenesis is a sexual way of reproduction, as the sex cells are involved, but the gamete does not merge.
Participate males and females of different species. As with parthenogenesis, caviar is not fertilized. The male activates the spawning process. Offspring is born only female.
The presence of male and female signs, manifested sequentially or simultaneously. Hermaphroditism includes sex change during life, or laying eggs and fertilization with one fish.
Types of fish
Fish unpretentious and hardy, easy to breed aquarists. To start spawning, you do not need frequent water changes and changes in diet. the breeding process starts by itself. The offspring is completely self. In viviparous parental instincts are missing. In this group, they wormed:
- four-eyed fish;
Females spawn, and males fertilize it. Fish have learned to hide offspring from others under plant leaves, in stones and caves, in shells.
Species carefully guarding the offspring:
- South American and African cichlids;
- the neons.
More common fish eating eggs and offspring:
- goldfish (voiletail, butterfly, pearl, comet, nanjing);
- catfish corridor;
Some varieties of Betta Fish carry caviar in their mouths:
Cichlids, incubating eggs in the mouth:
In aquarium conditions, egg-borne species are rarely found. In the natural environment these include sharks and stingrays.
Number of offspring
Depending on the species, conditions and age, from ten to several thousand fry are born. Good parents are those fish that bring fewer offspring.
Direct is characterized by a similar structure of fry and adult fish. Indirect development occurs with transformations: the born individual is not like parents. Indirect type of development is characteristic of those laying eggs.
To have a similar structure with adults, the offspring goes through several stages:
- An embryo forms inside the egg.
- Passing the embryonic stage of development, the future fry enters the stage of the larva. It begins with the rupture of the membrane of the egg. The larva has large eyes and an elongated body without fins. In the first few days the larva is immobile.
- The fry visually resembles a smaller copy of an adult fish. Scales and fins appear.
- Gradually the fry grows up to adult.
Viviparous species produce independent and similar in structure offspring. fry. This is a direct development.
Readiness for reproduction in fish with a short life cycle comes earlier. Already at the age of 2 months the fish is ready to breed. In small cichlids. in 3 months. Large fish with a long life span develop by 4-5 years. There are species that mature for 15-30 years. Sexual maturity of males occurs earlier than that of females.
To lay eggs, create conditions for this:
- Abundant food. Feed protein foods (daphnia, bloodworm, pipemaker). Watch your diet.
- Recreate natural conditions. Some species spawn in the rainy season, others in the dry season. Increase the temperature, make frequent water changes.
- If the species is territorial, then the first to settle in the spawn is a female, in a few days. the male.
- The color of males becomes richer. Pigment spots appear. Goldfish have gills on their gills.
- Behavior is replaced by aggressive and territorial. Skirmishes occur between males.
- Begin grooming the female. Some species prepare spawning grounds, where females are invited.
- The abdomen of females swells from the eggs.
Reproduction of viviparous
Zhivorodki spawn several times a year without creating special conditions. If spawning does not occur, gradually increase the temperature by a couple of degrees. Pregnancy proceeds faster at elevated temperatures, but too warm water will lead to the emergence of non-viable offspring.
During the incubation period, the female’s abdomen will grow and be noticeably rounded, and when it becomes more square, you will seize the expectant mother for a calm birth.
Keep offspring away from adults, otherwise the fry will be eaten.
Prepare a separate aquarium or a special trap for breeding aquarium fish. Two weeks later, the first sexual signs appear. Sort the fry on the floor: individuals with a dark spot on the abdomen. females.
Spawning fry in different ways. Some species create a pair, others form a harem or bevy. Spawning is prepared in accordance with the characteristics of producers.
Dispersion occurs at the coral spawning. Eggs are scattered in random order and fall on the ground, leaves and stones. Adult fish do not show parental affection and eat caviar. To protect the eggs, place the soil in the form of balls with a diameter of 1 cm, the bottom is covered with a grid with small cells.
Couple form a clutch in a secluded place. Eggs tenderly care and protect. Place in a spawning aquarium shelters and broadleaf plants, where it will be convenient to spawn.
Formation of laying in caves gorges
This behavior is typical for fish that have emerged from aggressive habitat conditions. Spawning settles shelters from the pile of rocks, large shells and pots.
Dipping caviar in the ground
Killi fish originating from shallow reservoirs with a silt bottom form temporary vapors. Pay attention to the soil, choose a substrate based on peat or coconut fibers. When parents spawn, it can be stored for a couple of months in a warm and dry place. This feature is used by mailing eggs.
Nest of bubbles
Nests of air bubbles and pieces of plants build labyrinth fish. Parents form a pair for life and anxiously take care of the eggs until the fry. When making a spawning box, place tall and floating plants. Be sure to have a tight lid in which an air gap is formed.
Professionals hold the South American stingray and Leopoldi, who have adapted to captive breeding. Breeding is difficult to carry out in the conditions of the aquarium, the species in general are whimsical and not recommended for beginners.
Breeding features of popular fish
Fish breeding is accompanied by interesting features:
- Some fish take care of their offspring at the calf stage. Then their parental instincts fade away.
- The males of the cichlids on the contrary are unduly worried about their offspring and show aggression towards the females, if they do not like something in dealing with the offspring.
- An abrupt change in conditions in viviparous fish leads to a change in gender from female to male.
- Discus, scalar and fairy cichlids choose their mating partner for a long time and form a pair for life.
- Approach breeding aquarium fish responsibly. Create in advance the conditions for future fish. Calculate how much aquarium will be needed. Often, due to incorrect calculations or too much offspring, the fish suffer from overcrowding. With a lack of space, the fish show aggression towards each other and experience stress. In an overpopulated reservoir, the fish grows smaller in size, which leads to subsequent health problems.
- Another problem. the fry do not live to the stage of a teenager. Death of the fry is caused by improper selection of feed and low quality water. Remember that large particles of food in the tank with the fry should not be.
- Do not allow close interbreeding. The degeneration of the population is due to unrequited on time heterosexual offspring. Fish look less bright, they may have problems with further self-reproduction. The same applies to closely related species (swordtails, mollies, patcilia).
- If the necessary conditions are created, and the fish do not breed, or spawn fruitless eggs, select another male as a producer. Most likely, he has damaged gonopodia or he is already old. The lack of offspring is associated with inappropriate water parameters. If a white bloom appears on the eggs, check whether the temperature is suitable for the fish and the water is not too hard or soft.
Care of offspring
Feed the fry four times a day:
- liquid feeds;
- food pounded to dust.
Food should be evenly distributed throughout the space. Poor filtering will help deliver feed particles to different parts of the reservoir. Mix the ground feed with water and place in a syringe, feeding drop by drop at the surface of the water. In the care of fry include constant water changes and monitoring the stability of the parameters.
Breed fish, having studied the subtleties of spawning of the desired species. Take up the challenge in the presence of free time and sufficient enthusiasm. Manufacturers choose healthy and vibrant individuals. Remember that not all species breed in domestic ponds. Neons, large catfish, discus and some cichlids are difficult to breed.